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Are there any common guidelines howto choose a color scheme (for example foreground/background color) for terminal, emacs etc. to minimize exhaustion of the eyes? If so, is there scientific evidence for such a guideline?

In particular are there ready to use eye-friendly color schemes for urxvtand emacs?

Edit:

It would be also interesting to know, how the decision depends on the screen (matte, glossy) and on the environment (indoor, outdoor,...). In my case it is a Dell Latitude ATG which has a slightly glossy screen (not matte, but not a mirror). I use it indoors in office, in dark rooms and also outdoors.

In my case I first thought, that black font on white background is the best because the white background reduces reflections due to the glossy screen. And because black on white seems to be a high contrast. However it seems that the bright white tires the eyes...

I should point out, that I am not interested in personal opinions but in scientific evidence or at least in reasonable generally accepted guidelines based on experience.

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    I like the solarized colour scheme which I use for the editor and as dircolors. – Marco Jul 19 '12 at 16:33
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    Why the close vote? – student Jul 19 '12 at 19:07
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    The close vote is for "not constructive," ie., likely to elicit opinions rather than facts. Not mine, btw, I think the fact that you asked for evidence accompanying any answers clearly mitigates that. – jasonwryan Jul 19 '12 at 19:54
  • I actually cast one of the close votes - it's a good question but not really on topic for U&L, since it's about color, human color perception, and eye health. – jw013 Jul 23 '12 at 18:01
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    @jw013 ...but it's also about computers and in particular linux programs. You may say it's about the "computer-human interface", so I doesn't think that it's off-topic... – student Jul 23 '12 at 18:18
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Taken from the solorized home page:

Black text on white from a computer display is akin to reading a book in direct sunlight and tires the eye. Solarized reduces brightness contrast but, unlike many low contrast colorschemes, retains contrasting hues (based on colorwheel relations) for syntax highlighting readability.

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    +1. As far as I know Solarized is the only color scheme that has been engineered. It's arguable that Solarized is best because science makes it so. – bahamat Jul 20 '12 at 17:44
  • @bahamat actually that makes sense. I'm gonna give it a try. I love Monokai, but the argument they [Solarized] give is unbeatable. – Alfredo Hernández Sep 10 '14 at 15:10
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    It's been meticulously engineered..to have properties..but none of those have been mentioned as being good for the eyes. Rather, they're based on what the designer of solarized finds/found soothing. – Info5ek Feb 16 '17 at 8:01

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