Does the latest version of the Linux kernel (3.x) still use the Completely Fair Scheduler (CFS) for process scheduling which was introduced in 2.6.x ?
If it doesn't, which one does it use, and how does it work? Please provide a source.
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That's still the default, yes, though I would not call it the same, as it is constantly in development. You can read how it works with links to the code at http://git.kernel.org/?p=linux/kernel/git/next/linux-next.git;a=blob;f=Documentation/scheduler/sched-design-CFS.txt
Yes, it does. It is the default scheduler in 3.x series but the kernel now has a realtime scheduler also built-in but disabled by default.
More on wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linux_kernel
This, in my opinion is the easiest to digest explanation on CFS: Process Scheduling in Linux, for kernel 3, chapter 7
Also, at the end of the article there are more links on the topic.