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Trying to boot Ubuntu 16.04 from GRUB but it ends up in Emergency mode and Control-D doesn't load the system.

This is most probably is caused by nvidia drivers:

nouveau 0000:01:00.0: priv: HUB0: 6013d4 ...
nouveau 0000:01:00.0: priv: HUB0: 10ecc0 ...

enter image description here

After adding a boot option nouveau.modeset=0 at the end of the linux line, these two messages disappear but the problem still remians -- cannot boot the Ubuntu. enter image description here

In addition if I go to recovery mode I cannot enable network there to update drivers, for example.

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    Did you look at the output of journalctl -xb as suggested in the screenshot? We will need that information. – guntbert Jan 13 '18 at 19:39
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    systemctl --failed is another starting point, to simply name failed unit(s). Emergency mode should only be triggered by being unable to mount a filesystem (e.g. var.mount unit), so I don't expect it is due to nvidia. – sourcejedi Jan 13 '18 at 19:52
  • sadly the text of mount errors has never been logged in the journal, due to an oversight which I submitted a patch for today :-(. So another useful starting point is mount -a, to try and get error messages. – sourcejedi Jan 13 '18 at 19:59
  • Does the partition mount if you boot from a live-cd ? it will determinate if yes or no it is a mount issue or not – francois P Jan 13 '18 at 20:01
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    Thank you for your comments that helped me to find the answer. – Fibo Kowalsky Jan 14 '18 at 11:36
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As @sourcejedi commented I tried systemctl --failed and got the following:

 UNIT                  LOAD   ACTIVE SUB    DESCRIPTION 
* media-win-Data.mount loaded failed failed /media/win/Data
* media-win-Misc.mount loaded failed failed /media/win/Misc

Which are Windows drives (without OS installed on them). After running mount -a I got the message that /dev/sda7 and /dev/sda5 cannot be mounted because:

The NTFS partition is in an unsafe state. Please resume and shutdown windows fully (no hibernation or fast restarting)

I turned off fast startup (recommended) in Windows 10 according to Unable to mount Windows (NTFS) filesystem due to hibernation. After shutting down Windows, Ubuntu boots without complaints.

Interestingly, I was using fast startup option for shutting down Windows for more than a month and Ubuntu has not complained about it before. That's why I didn't think that this could be the reason.

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