Before I switched to Linux as my main OS, I used to make music just for fun. I was making EDM (Dubstep/Drum and Bass). I'm on Fedora 27. I wanted to start making it again because I can. What DAWs are available for Linux that support VST, and has MIDI.
TL;DR Almost any popular audio editing software on Linux supports this.
There are also a handful of dedicated software synthesizers that usually receive MIDI but I believe only the Fluidsynth supports VST.
There are also a handful of music scoring software (usually called MIDI editors) on Linux that support MIDI but rarely support VST but basically any full fledged DAW on linux supports VST as well as other plugin systems such as LV2.
I'd normally shy away from a question like this considering its bound to change over time however what I've mentioned here has been true on Linux pretty much since I started using it a decade ago and was some of the first things I did on Linux.
I can really recommend Tracktion Waveform. You can use its predecessor Tracktion 7 for free.