I believe Ubuntu is loosely based on a combination of Debian "testing" and "unstable". At the time of this comment, Debian "Stretch" is Debian "stable." What that means is that the software in the repo is mostly going to be OK working together in a cohesive and 'unbroken' way. It also means that very few updates will be required, except for security updates.
In general, I use Debian "testing" for home use and Debian "stable" for servers. If you are used to Ubuntu, Debian "stable" is probably not for you, since much of the software will be several point releases lower than the latest available.
However, if you are really committed to Debian "stable" as your general purpose OS, I would recommend making sure that you have "backports" listed in your /etc/apt/sources.list file.
deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian stretch-backports main
And for further reading on Debian releases and backports in general: