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I am trying to compile ChatScript V7.55 on Ubuntu 16.04 but I got this error message:

collect2: error: ld returned 1 exit status
Makefile:107: recipe for target ‘binary’ failed
make: *** [binary] Error 1

What is this and how can I fix?

This is the whole result after tried this command: make server

************ LINUX VERSION ************
g++ constructCode.o duktape/duktape.c evserver.o csocket.o cs_ev.c dictionarySystem.o englishTagger.o factSystem.o json.o functionExecute.o english.o infer.o javascript.o jsmn.o markSystem.o mongodb.o os.o outputSystem.o patternSystem.o postgres.o privatesrc.o scriptCompile.o spellcheck.o secure.o systemVariables.o tagger.o testing.o textUtilities.o tokenSystem.o topicSystem.o userCache.o userSystem.o variableSystem.o mainSystem.o -L/usr/lib64 -lrt -lcurl  --verbose -pthread -DLOCKUSERFILE=1  -DEVSERVER=1 -DEVSERVER_FORK=1  -DDISCARDPOSTGRES=1 -DDISCARDMONGO=1 -DDISCARDMYSQL=1  -Ievserver -o ../BINARIES/ChatScript
Using built-in specs.
COLLECT_GCC=g++
COLLECT_LTO_WRAPPER=/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/5/lto-wrapper
Target: x86_64-linux-gnu
Configured with: ../src/configure -v --with-pkgversion='Ubuntu 5.4.0-6ubuntu1~16.04.4' --with-bugurl=file:///usr/share/doc/gcc-5/README.Bugs --enable-languages=c,ada,c++,java,go,d,fortran,objc,obj-c++ --prefix=/usr --program-suffix=-5 --enable-shared --enable-linker-build-id --libexecdir=/usr/lib --without-included-gettext --enable-threads=posix --libdir=/usr/lib --enable-nls --with-sysroot=/ --enable-clocale=gnu --enable-libstdcxx-debug --enable-libstdcxx-time=yes --with-default-libstdcxx-abi=new --enable-gnu-unique-object --disable-vtable-verify --enable-libmpx --enable-plugin --with-system-zlib --disable-browser-plugin --enable-java-awt=gtk --enable-gtk-cairo --with-java-home=/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.5.0-gcj-5-amd64/jre --enable-java-home --with-jvm-root-dir=/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.5.0-gcj-5-amd64 --with-jvm-jar-dir=/usr/lib/jvm-exports/java-1.5.0-gcj-5-amd64 --with-arch-directory=amd64 --with-ecj-jar=/usr/share/java/eclipse-ecj.jar --enable-objc-gc --enable-multiarch --disable-werror --with-arch-32=i686 --with-abi=m64 --with-multilib-list=m32,m64,mx32 --enable-multilib --with-tune=generic --enable-checking=release --build=x86_64-linux-gnu --host=x86_64-linux-gnu --target=x86_64-linux-gnu
Thread model: posix
gcc version 5.4.0 20160609 (Ubuntu 5.4.0-6ubuntu1~16.04.4) 
COLLECT_GCC_OPTIONS='-L/usr/lib64' '-v' '-pthread' '-D' 'LOCKUSERFILE=1' '-D' 'EVSERVER=1' '-D' 'EVSERVER_FORK=1' '-D' 'DISCARDPOSTGRES=1' '-D' 'DISCARDMONGO=1' '-D' 'DISCARDMYSQL=1' '-I' 'evserver' '-o' '../BINARIES/ChatScript' '-shared-libgcc' '-mtune=generic' '-march=x86-64'
 /usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/5/cc1plus -quiet -v -I evserver -imultiarch x86_64-linux-gnu -D_GNU_SOURCE -D_REENTRANT -D LOCKUSERFILE=1 -D EVSERVER=1 -D EVSERVER_FORK=1 -D DISCARDPOSTGRES=1 -D DISCARDMONGO=1 -D DISCARDMYSQL=1 duktape/duktape.c -quiet -dumpbase duktape.c -mtune=generic -march=x86-64 -auxbase duktape -version -fstack-protector-strong -Wformat -Wformat-security -o /tmp/ccz9862e.s
GNU C++ (Ubuntu 5.4.0-6ubuntu1~16.04.4) version 5.4.0 20160609 (x86_64-linux-gnu)
    compiled by GNU C version 5.4.0 20160609, GMP version 6.1.0, MPFR version 3.1.4, MPC version 1.0.3
GGC heuristics: --param ggc-min-expand=100 --param ggc-min-heapsize=131072
ignoring duplicate directory "/usr/include/x86_64-linux-gnu/c++/5"
ignoring nonexistent directory "/usr/local/include/x86_64-linux-gnu"
ignoring nonexistent directory "/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/5/../../../../x86_64-linux-gnu/include"
#include "..." search starts here:
#include <...> search starts here:
 evserver
 /usr/include/c++/5
 /usr/include/x86_64-linux-gnu/c++/5
 /usr/include/c++/5/backward
 /usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/5/include
 /usr/local/include
 /usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/5/include-fixed
 /usr/include/x86_64-linux-gnu
 /usr/include
End of search list.
GNU C++ (Ubuntu 5.4.0-6ubuntu1~16.04.4) version 5.4.0 20160609 (x86_64-linux-gnu)
    compiled by GNU C version 5.4.0 20160609, GMP version 6.1.0, MPFR version 3.1.4, MPC version 1.0.3
GGC heuristics: --param ggc-min-expand=100 --param ggc-min-heapsize=131072
Compiler executable checksum: c3fdb80f2154421ceaf9e22c85325a8d
COLLECT_GCC_OPTIONS='-L/usr/lib64' '-v' '-pthread' '-D' 'LOCKUSERFILE=1' '-D' 'EVSERVER=1' '-D' 'EVSERVER_FORK=1' '-D' 'DISCARDPOSTGRES=1' '-D' 'DISCARDMONGO=1' '-D' 'DISCARDMYSQL=1' '-I' 'evserver' '-o' '../BINARIES/ChatScript' '-shared-libgcc' '-mtune=generic' '-march=x86-64'
 as -v -I evserver --64 -o /tmp/ccm8SVai.o /tmp/ccz9862e.s
GNU assembler version 2.26.1 (x86_64-linux-gnu) using BFD version (GNU Binutils for Ubuntu) 2.26.1
COLLECT_GCC_OPTIONS='-L/usr/lib64' '-v' '-pthread' '-D' 'LOCKUSERFILE=1' '-D' 'EVSERVER=1' '-D' 'EVSERVER_FORK=1' '-D' 'DISCARDPOSTGRES=1' '-D' 'DISCARDMONGO=1' '-D' 'DISCARDMYSQL=1' '-I' 'evserver' '-o' '../BINARIES/ChatScript' '-shared-libgcc' '-mtune=generic' '-march=x86-64'
 /usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/5/cc1plus -quiet -v -I evserver -imultiarch x86_64-linux-gnu -D_GNU_SOURCE -D_REENTRANT -D LOCKUSERFILE=1 -D EVSERVER=1 -D EVSERVER_FORK=1 -D DISCARDPOSTGRES=1 -D DISCARDMONGO=1 -D DISCARDMYSQL=1 cs_ev.c -quiet -dumpbase cs_ev.c -mtune=generic -march=x86-64 -auxbase cs_ev -version -fstack-protector-strong -Wformat -Wformat-security -o /tmp/ccz9862e.s
GNU C++ (Ubuntu 5.4.0-6ubuntu1~16.04.4) version 5.4.0 20160609 (x86_64-linux-gnu)
    compiled by GNU C version 5.4.0 20160609, GMP version 6.1.0, MPFR version 3.1.4, MPC version 1.0.3
GGC heuristics: --param ggc-min-expand=100 --param ggc-min-heapsize=131072
ignoring duplicate directory "/usr/include/x86_64-linux-gnu/c++/5"
ignoring nonexistent directory "/usr/local/include/x86_64-linux-gnu"
ignoring nonexistent directory "/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/5/../../../../x86_64-linux-gnu/include"
#include "..." search starts here:
#include <...> search starts here:
 evserver
 /usr/include/c++/5
 /usr/include/x86_64-linux-gnu/c++/5
 /usr/include/c++/5/backward
 /usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/5/include
 /usr/local/include
 /usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/5/include-fixed
 /usr/include/x86_64-linux-gnu
 /usr/include
End of search list.
GNU C++ (Ubuntu 5.4.0-6ubuntu1~16.04.4) version 5.4.0 20160609 (x86_64-linux-gnu)
    compiled by GNU C version 5.4.0 20160609, GMP version 6.1.0, MPFR version 3.1.4, MPC version 1.0.3
GGC heuristics: --param ggc-min-expand=100 --param ggc-min-heapsize=131072
Compiler executable checksum: c3fdb80f2154421ceaf9e22c85325a8d
In file included from cs_ev.c:5:0:
evserver/ev.c:1254:31: warning: ‘ev_default_loop_ptr’ initialized and declared ‘extern’
   EV_API_DECL struct ev_loop *ev_default_loop_ptr = 0; /* needs to be initialised to make it a definition despite extern */
                               ^
COLLECT_GCC_OPTIONS='-L/usr/lib64' '-v' '-pthread' '-D' 'LOCKUSERFILE=1' '-D' 'EVSERVER=1' '-D' 'EVSERVER_FORK=1' '-D' 'DISCARDPOSTGRES=1' '-D' 'DISCARDMONGO=1' '-D' 'DISCARDMYSQL=1' '-I' 'evserver' '-o' '../BINARIES/ChatScript' '-shared-libgcc' '-mtune=generic' '-march=x86-64'
 as -v -I evserver --64 -o /tmp/ccRZyE1l.o /tmp/ccz9862e.s
GNU assembler version 2.26.1 (x86_64-linux-gnu) using BFD version (GNU Binutils for Ubuntu) 2.26.1
COMPILER_PATH=/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/5/:/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/5/:/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/:/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/5/:/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/
LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/5/:/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/5/../../../x86_64-linux-gnu/:/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/5/../../../../lib/:/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/:/lib/../lib/:/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/:/usr/lib/../lib/:/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/5/../../../:/lib/:/usr/lib/
COLLECT_GCC_OPTIONS='-L/usr/lib64' '-v' '-pthread' '-D' 'LOCKUSERFILE=1' '-D' 'EVSERVER=1' '-D' 'EVSERVER_FORK=1' '-D' 'DISCARDPOSTGRES=1' '-D' 'DISCARDMONGO=1' '-D' 'DISCARDMYSQL=1' '-I' 'evserver' '-o' '../BINARIES/ChatScript' '-shared-libgcc' '-mtune=generic' '-march=x86-64'
 /usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/5/collect2 -plugin /usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/5/liblto_plugin.so -plugin-opt=/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/5/lto-wrapper -plugin-opt=-fresolution=/tmp/ccIwnEUp.res -plugin-opt=-pass-through=-lgcc_s -plugin-opt=-pass-through=-lgcc -plugin-opt=-pass-through=-lpthread -plugin-opt=-pass-through=-lc -plugin-opt=-pass-through=-lgcc_s -plugin-opt=-pass-through=-lgcc --sysroot=/ --build-id --eh-frame-hdr -m elf_x86_64 --hash-style=gnu --as-needed -dynamic-linker /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 -z relro -o ../BINARIES/ChatScript /usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/5/../../../x86_64-linux-gnu/crt1.o /usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/5/../../../x86_64-linux-gnu/crti.o /usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/5/crtbegin.o -L/usr/lib64 -L/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/5 -L/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/5/../../../x86_64-linux-gnu -L/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/5/../../../../lib -L/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu -L/lib/../lib -L/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu -L/usr/lib/../lib -L/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/5/../../.. constructCode.o /tmp/ccm8SVai.o evserver.o csocket.o /tmp/ccRZyE1l.o dictionarySystem.o englishTagger.o factSystem.o json.o functionExecute.o english.o infer.o javascript.o jsmn.o markSystem.o mongodb.o os.o outputSystem.o patternSystem.o postgres.o privatesrc.o scriptCompile.o spellcheck.o secure.o systemVariables.o tagger.o testing.o textUtilities.o tokenSystem.o topicSystem.o userCache.o userSystem.o variableSystem.o mainSystem.o -lrt -lcurl -lstdc++ -lm -lgcc_s -lgcc -lpthread -lc -lgcc_s -lgcc /usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/5/crtend.o /usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/5/../../../x86_64-linux-gnu/crtn.o
/usr/lib/gcc/x86_64-linux-gnu/5/../../../x86_64-linux-gnu/crt1.o: In function `_start':
(.text+0x20): undefined reference to `main'
evserver.o: In function `evsrv_do_chat(Client_t*)':
evserver.cpp:(.text+0x161a): undefined reference to `LogChat(long, char*, char*, char*, int, char*, char*)'
mainSystem.o: In function `InitSystem(int, char**, char*, char*, char*, USERFILESYSTEM*, void (*)(char*), void (*)(char*))':
mainSystem.cpp:(.text+0x2687): undefined reference to `ReadTopicFiles(char*, unsigned int, int)'
mainSystem.cpp:(.text+0x273d): undefined reference to `ReadTopicFiles(char*, unsigned int, int)'
collect2: error: ld returned 1 exit status
Makefile:107: recipe for target 'binary' failed
make: *** [binary] Error 1

This is the make file contents too:

.PHONY = all clean binary server debugserver standalone pgserver debugpgserver mongoserver debugmongoserver foreignserver mongotreetaggerserver 


server: DEFINES+= -DLOCKUSERFILE=1  -DEVSERVER=1 -DEVSERVER_FORK=1  -DDISCARDPOSTGRES=1 -DDISCARDMONGO=1 -DDISCARDMYSQL=1 
server: PGLOAD= -pthread
server: INCLUDEDIRS=-Ievserver
server: all
server: EXECUTABLE=../BINARIES/ChatScript
server: CFLAGS=-c  -std=c++11 -Wall  -funsigned-char  -Wno-write-strings -Wno-char-subscripts -Wno-strict-aliasing 

debugserver: DEFINES+= -DLOCKUSERFILE=1 -DDISCARDPOSTGRES=1 -DDISCARDMONGO=1 -DDISCARDMYSQL=1  -DDEBUG -DEVSERVER=1 -DEVSERVER_FORK=1 
debugserver: PGLOAD= -pthread
debugserver: INCLUDEDIRS=-Ievserver
debugserver: all
debugserver: EXECUTABLE=../BINARIES/ChatScriptDebug
debugserver: CFLAGS=-c -std=c++11 -Wall  -funsigned-char  -Wno-write-strings -Wno-char-subscripts -Wno-strict-aliasing -g

standalone: DEFINES+=  -DDISCARDSERVER=1 -DDISCARDPOSTGRES=1 -DDISCARDMONGO=1 -DDISCARDMYSQL=1 -DEVSERVER=1 -DEVSERVER_FORK=1
standalone: PGLOAD= -pthread
standalone: INCLUDEDIRS=-Ievserver
standalone: all
standalone: EXECUTABLE=../BINARIES/ChatScript
standalone: CFLAGS=-c -std=c++11  -Wall  -funsigned-char  -Wno-write-strings -Wno-char-subscripts -Wno-strict-aliasing 

pgserver: DEFINES+= -DLOCKUSERFILE=1 -DEVSERVER=1 -DEVSERVER_FORK=1 -DDISCARDMONGO=1 -DDISCARDMYSQL=1
pgserver: PGLOAD= -lpq -pthread
pgserver: all
pgserver: EXECUTABLE=../BINARIES/ChatScriptpg
pgserver: INCLUDEDIRS=-Ievserver -Ipostgres
pgserver: CFLAGS=-c -std=c++11 -Wall  -funsigned-char  -Wno-write-strings -Wno-char-subscripts -Wno-strict-aliasing 

debugpgserver: DEFINES+= -DLOCKUSERFILE=1  -DDEBUG -DEVSERVER=1 -DEVSERVER_FORK=1  -DDISCARDMONGO=1  
debugpgserver: PGLOAD= -lpq -pthread
debugpgserver: INCLUDEDIRS=-Ievserver
debugpgserver: all
debugpgserver: EXECUTABLE=../BINARIES/ChatScriptpgDebug
debugpgserver: CFLAGS=-c -std=c++11 -Wall  -funsigned-char  -Wno-write-strings -Wno-char-subscripts -Wno-strict-aliasing -g

mongoserver: DEFINES+= -DLOCKUSERFILE=1 -DEVSERVER=1 -DEVSERVER_FORK=1 -DDISCARDPOSTGRES=1 -DDISCARDMYSQL=1
mongoserver: PGLOAD= -pthread
mongoserver: all
mongoserver: EXECUTABLE=../BINARIES/ChatScriptMongo
mongoserver: INCLUDEDIRS=-Iinclude -I/usr/local/include/libbson-1.0 -I/usr/local/include/libmongoc-1.0
mongoserver: CFLAGS=-c -std=c++11  -Wall  -funsigned-char  -Wno-write-strings -Wno-char-subscripts -Wno-strict-aliasing -g

debugmongoserver: DEFINES+= -DLOCKUSERFILE=1  -DDEBUG -DEVSERVER=1 -DEVSERVER_FORK=1  -DDISCARDPOSTGRES=1  -DDISCARDMYSQL=1
debugmongoserver: PGLOAD= -lpq -pthread
debugmongoserver: all
debugmongoserver: INCLUDEDIRS=-Iinclude -I/usr/local/include/libbson-1.0 -I/usr/local/include/libmongoc-1.0
debugmongoserver: EXECUTABLE=../BINARIES/ChatScriptMongoDebug
debugmongoserver: CFLAGS=-c -std=c++11 -Wall  -funsigned-char  -Wno-write-strings -Wno-char-subscripts -Wno-strict-aliasing -g

foreignserver: DEFINES+= -DLOCKUSERFILE=1  -DEVSERVER=1 -DEVSERVER_FORK=1  -DDISCARDPOSTGRES=1 -DDISCARDMONGO=1 -DDISCARDMYSQL=1 -DTREETAGGER=1
foreignserver: PGLOAD= -pthread -L../treetagger -L../BINARIES -ltreetagger
foreignserver: INCLUDEDIRS=-Ievserver
foreignserver: all
foreignserver: EXECUTABLE=../BINARIES/ChatScriptForeign
foreignserver: CFLAGS=-c -std=c++11 -Wall  -funsigned-char  -Wno-write-strings -Wno-char-subscripts -Wno-strict-aliasing 

mongotreetaggerserver: DEFINES+= -DLOCKUSERFILE=1  -DEVSERVER=1 -DEVSERVER_FORK=1  -DDISCARDPOSTGRES=1  -DDISCARDMYSQL=1 -DTREETAGGER=1
mongotreetaggerserver: PGLOAD= -pthread -L../treetagger -L../BINARIES -ltreetagger
mongotreetaggerserver: INCLUDEDIRS=-Iinclude -I/usr/local/include/libbson-1.0 -I/usr/local/include/libmongoc-1.0
mongotreetaggerserver: all
mongotreetaggerserver: EXECUTABLE=../BINARIES/ChatScriptMongoForeign
mongotreetaggerserver: CFLAGS=-c -std=c++11 -Wall  -funsigned-char  -Wno-write-strings -Wno-char-subscripts -Wno-strict-aliasing 

UNAME := $(shell uname)

CC=g++

ifeq ($(UNAME), Linux)
$(info ************ LINUX VERSION ************)
LDFLAGS= -L/usr/lib64 -lrt -lcurl  --verbose $(PGLOAD)
mongoserver: LDFLAGS+= -lcrypt -lsasl2 -L/usr/local/lib -lmongoc-1.0 -lbson-1.0 
debugmongoserver: LDFLAGS+= -lcrypt -lsasl2 -L/usr/local/lib -lmongoc-1.0 -lbson-1.0 
mongotreetaggerserver: LDFLAGS+= -lcrypt -lsasl2 -L/usr/local/lib -lmongoc-1.0 -lbson-1.0 
endif

ifeq ($(UNAME), Darwin)
OSXRELEASE := $(shell defaults read loginwindow SystemVersionStampAsString)
$(info ************ MAC VERSION $OSXRELEASE detected ************)
LDFLAGS=-mmacosx-version-min=$(OSXRELEASE) -lcurl $(PGLOAD)  
CFLAGS=-mmacosx-version-min=$(OSXRELEASE) -c  -Wall  -funsigned-char -Wno-write-strings -Wno-char-subscripts 
endif

ifeq ($(UNAME), FreeBSD)
$(info ************ FREEBSD VERSION ************)
DEFINES+= -DFREEBSD=1
INCLUDEDIRS+= -I/usr/local/include
LDFLAGS= -L/usr/local/lib -lrt -lcurl -lev  --verbose $(PGLOAD)
mongoserver: LDFLAGS+= -lgcrypt -lsasl2 -lmongoc-1.0 -lbson-1.0 
debugmongoserver: LDFLAGS+= -lgcrypt -lsasl2 -lmongoc-1.0 -lbson-1.0 
mongotreetaggerserver: LDFLAGS+= -lgcrypt -lsasl2 -lmongoc-1.0 -lbson-1.0 
endif

SOURCES=constructCode.cpp duktape/duktape.c evserver.cpp csocket.cpp cs_ev.c dictionarySystem.cpp englishTagger.cpp factSystem.cpp json.cpp functionExecute.cpp english.cpp infer.cpp javascript.cpp jsmn.cpp markSystem.cpp mongodb.cpp os.cpp outputSystem.cpp patternSystem.cpp postgres.cpp privatesrc.cpp scriptCompile.cpp spellcheck.cpp secure.cpp systemVariables.cpp tagger.cpp testing.cpp textUtilities.cpp tokenSystem.cpp topicSystem.cpp userCache.cpp userSystem.cpp variableSystem.cpp mainSystem.cpp 
OBJECTS=$(SOURCES:.cpp=.o)

all: $(SOURCES) binary

clean:
    -rm -f $(EXECUTABLE)
    -rm -f ../$(EXECUTABLE)
    -rm -f *.o

binary: $(OBJECTS)
    $(CC) $(OBJECTS) $(LDFLAGS) $(DEFINES) $(INCLUDEDIRS) -o $(EXECUTABLE)

.cpp.o:
    $(CC) $(CFLAGS) $(DEFINES) $(INCLUDEDIRS) $< -o $@
  • Does that mean you fixed the problem in your previous question? Anyway, for this ld problem we need to see the actual ld error message, and preferably the command that make tried to run; please edit your question to add that information. – Stephen Kitt Oct 7 '17 at 19:55
  • Yes I solved the problem by adding #include <netinet/tcp.h> in above of ” evserver.cpp ” file – Hasani Oct 7 '17 at 20:36
  • This seems to be an issue with the Makefile. It doesn't seem to link the relevant object files. – Kusalananda Oct 7 '17 at 20:47

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