32

I'm trying to create some error reporting using a Trap to call a function on all errors:

Trap "_func" ERR

Is it possible to get what line the ERR signal was sent from? The shell is bash.

If I do that, I can read and report what command was used and log/perform some actions.

Or maybe I'm going at this all wrong?

I tested with the following:

#!/bin/bash
trap "ECHO $LINENO" ERR

echo hello | grep "asdf"

And $LINENO is returning 2. Not working.

  • You can look at the bash debugger script bashdb. It seems that the first argument to trap can contain variables that are evaluated in the desired context. So trap 'echo $LINENO' ERR' should work. – donothingsuccessfully May 29 '12 at 18:53
  • hmm just tried this with a bad echo | grep command and it returns the line of the Trap statement. But I'll take a look at bashdb – Mechaflash May 29 '12 at 18:56
  • I'm so sorry... I didn't specify in my original question that I need a native solution. I edited the question. – Mechaflash May 29 '12 at 19:05
  • Sorry, I borked the example line: trap 'echo $LINENO' ERR. The first argument to trap is the entire echo $LINENO hardquoted. This is in bash. – donothingsuccessfully May 29 '12 at 19:43
  • 5
    @Mechaflash It would have to be trap 'echo $LINENO' ERR, with single quotes, not double quotes. With the command you wrote, $LINENO is expanded when line 2 is parsed, so the trap is echo 2 (or rather ECHO 2, which would output bash: ECHO: command not found). – Gilles 'SO- stop being evil' May 29 '12 at 23:56
69

As pointed out in comments, your quoting is wrong. You need single quotes to prevent $LINENO from being expanded when the trap line is first parsed.

This works:

#! /bin/bash

err_report() {
    echo "Error on line $1"
}

trap 'err_report $LINENO' ERR

echo hello | grep foo  # This is line number 9

Running it:

 $ ./test.sh
 Error on line 9
  • thanks for the example with a function call. I didn't know that double quotes expanded the variable in this case. – Mechaflash May 30 '12 at 14:23
  • echo hello | grep foo doesn't seem to throw error for me. Am I misunderstanding something? – geotheory Dec 2 '15 at 22:15
  • @geotheory On my system grep has an exit status of 0 if there was a match, 1 if there was no match and >1 for an error. You can check the behavior on your system with echo hello | grep foo; echo $? – Patrick Dec 7 '15 at 23:17
  • No you're right it is an error :) – geotheory Dec 8 '15 at 9:56
  • Don't you need to use -e on the invocation line, to cause error on command failure? That is: #!/bin/bash -e ? – Tim Bird Mar 31 '17 at 22:39
19

You can also use the bash builtin 'caller':

#!/bin/bash

err_report() {
  echo "errexit on line $(caller)" >&2
}

trap err_report ERR

echo hello | grep foo

it prints filename too:

$ ./test.sh
errexit on line 9 ./test.sh
| improve this answer | |
8

I really like the answer given by @Mat above. Building on this, I wrote a little helper which gives a bit more context for the error:

We can inspect the script for the line which caused the failure:

err() {
    echo "Error occurred:"
    awk 'NR>L-4 && NR<L+4 { printf "%-5d%3s%s\n",NR,(NR==L?">>>":""),$0 }' L=$1 $0
}
trap 'err $LINENO' ERR

Here it is in a small test script:

#!/bin/bash

set -e

err() {
    echo "Error occurred:"
    awk 'NR>L-4 && NR<L+4 { printf "%-5d%3s%s\n",NR,(NR==L?">>>":""),$0 }' L=$1 $0
}
trap 'err $LINENO' ERR

echo one
echo two
echo three
echo four
false
echo five
echo six
echo seven
echo eight

When we run it we get:

$ /tmp/test.sh
one
two
three
four
Error occurred:
12      echo two
13      echo three
14      echo four
15   >>>false
16      echo five
17      echo six
18      echo seven
| improve this answer | |
  • This would be even better using $(caller)'s data to give the context even if the failure is not in the current script but one of its imports. Very nice though! – tricasse Mar 7 '19 at 18:42
4

Is it possible to get what line the ERR signal was sent from?

Yes, LINENO and BASH_LINENO variables are supper useful for getting the line of failure and the lines that lead up to it.

Or maybe I'm going at this all wrong?

Nope, just missing -q option with grep...

echo hello | grep -q "asdf"

... With the -q option grep will return 0 for true and 1 for false. And in Bash it's trap not Trap...

trap "_func" ERR

... I need a native solution...

Here's a trapper that ya might find useful for debugging things that have a bit more cyclomatic complexity...

failure.sh

## Outputs Front-Mater formatted failures for functions not returning 0
## Use the following line after sourcing this file to set failure trap
##    trap 'failure "LINENO" "BASH_LINENO" "${BASH_COMMAND}" "${?}"' ERR
failure(){
    local -n _lineno="${1:-LINENO}"
    local -n _bash_lineno="${2:-BASH_LINENO}"
    local _last_command="${3:-${BASH_COMMAND}}"
    local _code="${4:-0}"

    ## Workaround for read EOF combo tripping traps
    if ! ((_code)); then
        return "${_code}"
    fi

    local _last_command_height="$(wc -l <<<"${_last_command}")"

    local -a _output_array=()
    _output_array+=(
        '---'
        "lines_history: [${_lineno} ${_bash_lineno[*]}]"
        "function_trace: [${FUNCNAME[*]}]"
        "exit_code: ${_code}"
    )

    if [[ "${#BASH_SOURCE[@]}" -gt '1' ]]; then
        _output_array+=('source_trace:')
        for _item in "${BASH_SOURCE[@]}"; do
            _output_array+=("  - ${_item}")
        done
    else
        _output_array+=("source_trace: [${BASH_SOURCE[*]}]")
    fi

    if [[ "${_last_command_height}" -gt '1' ]]; then
        _output_array+=(
            'last_command: ->'
            "${_last_command}"
        )
    else
        _output_array+=("last_command: ${_last_command}")
    fi

    _output_array+=('---')
    printf '%s\n' "${_output_array[@]}" >&2
    exit ${_code}
}

... and an example usage script for exposing the subtle differences in how to set the above trap for function tracing too...

example_usage.sh

#!/usr/bin/env bash

set -E -o functrace

## Optional, but recommended to find true directory this script resides in
__SOURCE__="${BASH_SOURCE[0]}"
while [[ -h "${__SOURCE__}" ]]; do
    __SOURCE__="$(find "${__SOURCE__}" -type l -ls | sed -n 's@^.* -> \(.*\)@\1@p')"
done
__DIR__="$(cd -P "$(dirname "${__SOURCE__}")" && pwd)"


## Source module code within this script
source "${__DIR__}/modules/trap-failure/failure.sh"

trap 'failure "LINENO" "BASH_LINENO" "${BASH_COMMAND}" "${?}"' ERR


something_functional() {
    _req_arg_one="${1:?something_functional needs two arguments, missing the first already}"
    _opt_arg_one="${2:-SPAM}"
    _opt_arg_two="${3:0}"
    printf 'something_functional: %s %s %s' "${_req_arg_one}" "${_opt_arg_one}" "${_opt_arg_two}"
    ## Generate an error by calling nothing
    "${__DIR__}/nothing.sh"
}


## Ignoring errors prevents trap from being triggered
something_functional || echo "Ignored something_functional returning $?"
if [[ "$(something_functional 'Spam!?')" == '0' ]]; then
    printf 'Nothing somehow was something?!\n' >&2 && exit 1
fi


## And generating an error state will cause the trap to _trace_ it
something_functional '' 'spam' 'Jam'

The above where tested on Bash version 4+, so leave a comment if something for versions prior to four are needed, or Open an Issue if it fails to trap failures on systems with a minimum version of four.

The main takeaways are...

set -E -o functrace
  • -E causes errors within functions to bubble up

  • -o functrace causes allows for more verbosity when something within a function fails

trap 'failure "LINENO" "BASH_LINENO" "${BASH_COMMAND}" "${?}"' ERR
  • Single quotes are used around function call and double quotes are around individual arguments

  • References to LINENO and BASH_LINENO are passed instead of the current values, though this might be shortened in later versions of linked to trap, such that the final failure line makes it into output

  • Values of BASH_COMMAND and exit status ($?) are passed, first to get the command that returned an error, and second for ensuring that the trap does not trigger on non-error statuses

And while others may disagree I find it's easier to build an output array and use printf for printing each array element on it's own line...

printf '%s\n' "${_output_array[@]}" >&2

... also the >&2 bit at the end causes errors to go where they should (standard error), and allows for capturing just errors...

## ... to a file...
some_trapped_script.sh 2>some_trapped_errros.log

## ... or by ignoring standard out...
some_trapped_script.sh 1>/dev/null

As shown by these and other examples on Stack Overflow, there be lots of ways to build a debugging aid using built in utilities.

| improve this answer | |
2

Inspired by other answer, here's a simpler contextual error handler:

trap '>&2 echo Command failed: $(tail -n+$LINENO $0 | head -n1)' ERR

You can also use awk instead of tail & head if needed.

| improve this answer | |
  • 1
    there's a reason the other answer provides context by way of 3 lines above and 3 lines below the offending line - what if the error emanates from a continuation line? – iruvar Mar 23 '19 at 3:13
  • @iruvar this is understood, but I don't need any of that extra context; one line of context is as simple as it gets, and as sufficient as I need – sanmai Mar 23 '19 at 4:42
  • Ok my friend,+1 – iruvar Mar 23 '19 at 6:24
1

Here's another version, inspired by @sanmai and @unpythonic. It shows script lines around the error, with line numbers, and the exit status - using tail & head as that seems simpler than the awk solution.

Showing this as two lines here for readability - you can join these lines into one if you prefer (preserving the ;):

trap 'echo >&2 "Error - exited with status $? at line $LINENO:"; 
         pr -tn $0 | tail -n+$((LINENO - 3)) | head -n7' ERR

This works quite well with set -euo pipefail (unofficial strict mode) - any undefined variable error gives a line number without firing the ERR pseudo-signal, but the other cases do show context.

Example output:

myscript.sh: line 27: blah: command not found
Error - exited with status 127 at line 27:
   24   # Do something
   25   lines=$(wc -l /etc/passwd)
   26   # More stuff
   27   blah
   28   
   29   # Check time
   30   time=$(date)
| improve this answer | |
0

The trap is very useful for finding undefined variables and array elements. There are a couple of "gotchas":

  1. Incremented variables

    ((i++)) post-increments. If i is zero, the return code is 1, triggering an apparent error. See Why does a=0; let a++ return exit code 1?

    Change to pre-increment ((++i)) and the problem goes away

  2. Testing for unset array elements

    if [[ -z ${array[$element]} ]]
    then
    ...
    

    will report 'unbound variable'. The +_ syntax does not trigger this error

    if ! [[ ${array[$element]+_} ]]
    

    This form is not exactly easy to remember 8-{

Apologies for posting a comment as an answer: the "gotchas" can easily put you off using a trap so it seemed worth noting the ways to avoid them.

| improve this answer | |

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