NOTE: I did not check if Debian installer supports setting up disks in way described in your example. This answer can be applied to other not directly supported configurations as well.
With Debian installer, you should be able to set up the disk layout from shell (Ctrl+Alt+F2). You need to have good understanding how your system works: if you configure disks outside of the installer, you also need to manually configure the installed system with the same parameters (crypttab, kernel modules, lvm, etc.).
The required LVM and LUKS modules need to be loaded by the installer, easiest way is following the installer to partitioning, select LVM and LUKS, then use
<back> to navigate to installer menu. Switch to shell, set up your disks (and possibly filesystems), return to installer and select your created devices as install targets.
After install is complete, you should then verify that initramfs contains everything required to mount the root filesystem before rebooting from installer. You might need to create appropriate crypttab yourself, since the installer wasn't used to set up the encrypted devices.
Your new install is mounted to
chroot to get access to installed system tools. Initramfs contents can be listed with
lsinitramfs <path to initramfs> and generated with
update-initramfs -u -k all.
It is also possible to install a Debian system using
debootstrap. Essential steps in short: Configure disks, mount devices (and
debootstrap, install kernel and grub, configure the system (fstab, crypttab, kernel modules, etc), update-initramfs and reboot.