I know this is old question, but still valid. In order to have
/dev/fb0 you need to have the frame-buffer enabled in your kernel.
To check you can grep it from kernel configuration (from currently running
grep CONFIG_FB_ /boot/config-3.10.0-693.17.1.el7.x86_64
For virtual environment you probably need VESA enabled so you add
grep VESA and you should get the following output:
# CONFIG_FB_UVESA is not set
If you have this configured you will see the device
Note: For older kernels like 4.9 you may need to add
vga=0x317 in the command-line.