Tex-stuff changes frequently and some of its packages aren't actualized on Synaptic.
Is there general way to get updated packages which are outdated on Synaptic?
At least can you provide me the way to be updated with texlive?
Already answered here.*
* The referenced answer refers to the TexLive repository of 2016, but there is new one every year. For 2017 see the PPA at: https://launchpad.net/~jonathonf/+archive/ubuntu/texlive-2017 . If you are reading this answer in the future :) just Google "texlive ppa" to find the latest TexLive PPA.