Network connectivity to your VM - assuming of course that it has a properly configured service to connect to - depends on what network type you've chosen in the VM settings.
1) NAT - this does what it says. Unfortunately, it doesn't create a matching address on your host machine. The only way to connect is to forward individual ports, just like you would on your home router. This is done in the manager interface, in the settings for the machine, on the networks tab. If you have "NAT" selected as the network type and the card is active/enabled, the Port Forwarding button will be active and available.
2) Bridged - this bridges across one of your ethernet devices in the host machine, and connects directly to the network as if it were plugged in to a jack somewhere. HOWEVER... some work places, schools, etc. do not allow multiple MAC addresses to communicate through a single managed switch port, and if that is the case on whatever LAN you are connecting to it Won't Work.
3) Host Only - this creates a virtual network between your host machine and the guest(s). There is a dhcp service available, but it won't provide a gateway. If you want your guests to connect, you'll need to set up NAT/etc on the host machine and provide access that way.
4) Internal only - this connects machines to a virtual internal dumb switch. No DHCP service, no gateway access, nothing. Oh, and no matching adapter on your host machine.
What I do for a lot of practice/playground/experimentation is set up one machine with 2 interfaces - one on bridged, and one internal. I then turn that into a router machine, with a fake domain (fake.tld) DNS service, DHCP, caching DNS service for the world, etc. and then spin up other VMS to actually experiment and do things with on the internal only network.