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I'm tring to install arch linux on my mac mini from a usb stick. But I'm stuck at the beginning:

[    9.138816] b43 ssb0:0: Direct firmware load for b43/ucode15.fw failed with error -2
[    9.138900] b43 ssb0:0: Direct firmware load for b43/ucode15.fw failed with error -2
[    9.138959] b43 ssb0:0: Direct firmware load for b43-open/ucode15.fw failed with error -2
[    9.139003] b43 ssb0:0: Direct firmware load for b43-open/ucode15.fw failed with error -2
[    9.139349] b43-phy0 ERROR: You must go to http://wireless.kernel.org/en/users/Dri … cefirmware and download the correct firmware for this driver version. Please carefully read all instructions on this website.

I google around about firmware and drivers. My understanding is that firmware is some software comes with the product in read-only memory(some where on the product has this firmware burned in)

Why this error message tells me to download the correct firmware?
Can firmware be changed ? Even if the firmware doesn't match the driver, shouldn't it be to download the driver for the firmware??

I'm totally confused, in my mind, the firmware is already there on the product, if anything wrong, it should be problem of driver.

Can someone help me clarify ?

5

It used to be the case that firmware was stored on the device, either in ROM or in flash. But that’s no longer always the case, and many devices need to have their firmware given to them before they’ll function. This reduces hardware costs and makes it easier to provide firmware updates. Generally speaking the firmware is provided to devices by their driver.

On Linux-based distributions, and other free operating systems, making the firmware available requires that the firmware be available with an appropriate licence. This isn’t always the case, and this is the problem you’re running into. When things don’t work out of the box, you’ll usually find instructions in your distribution’s documentation, in your case on the Arch wiki.

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