When I do ps -ef, I see "TIME" field. What does this field mean? From what I understand, this tells the actual CPU time, that the process got (amidst all the context switching). Does the TIME field include the disk read/write time also or only the CPU time?

  • 3
    -1, man ps, /time, first result.
    – l0b0
    Apr 12, 2012 at 14:04

1 Answer 1


It's the execution time - the time the process actually used the CPU(s), this does not count in the time the process waits for I/O events.

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