You're getting a boot-loop because Linux boots expecting the original hardware that it configured your system with during the initial installation.
it is possible to work on different computers with the usb stick?
Yes, but not the way you your thumbdrive is currently set up.
If you want your thumb drive to boot (and run properly) on different hardware configurations you need to use a live USB type setup. You can do this with configuration persistence and additional storage for your files on the thumb drive. Have a look at Linux Live USB and UNetbootin to do that.
Edit re. 4GB filesystem limitation:
There's an excellent article on the Live Usb Pendrive Persistence here. It explains how to get past the 4GB filesystem limitation.
Excerpt from the link:
Note that the maximum space that can be allocated for persistence is
limited to 4GB (maximum file size on a FAT32 filesystem is 4GB). This
limit can be overcome and is explained later on.
Note also: Nothing prevents you creating a storage partition on your USB (assuming it has space available). The persistence filesystem is intended for system configuration: customisations such as keyboard layout, numlock, preferences, additional packages saved on the drive etc.