I believe (not sure) that the owner of a file/directory and the root user are the only users that are allowed to change the permissions of a file/directory. Am I correct or are there other users that are also allowed to change the permissions?
Only the owner and
root (super user) are allowed to the change the permission of a file or directory. This means that the owner and the super user can set the read (
r), write (
w) and execute (
x) permissions. But changing the ownership (user/group) of files and directories with the commands
chgrp is only allowed to
For the purpose of normal operation, only root and the owner can
chmod. In addition, root can
chgrp, and furthermore the owner can
chgrp as long as the owner is a member of the target group.
For security purposes, there is another case though: any user with write permission to the directory containing the file can replace the file with a copy, and thus become the owner, gaining the ability to modify the permissions and contents.
14:14 mybox:~ mkdir mydir 14:14 mybox:~ cd mydir/ 14:14 mybox:mydir echo foo | sudo tee yourfile foo 14:14 mybox:mydir ls -ld . yourfile drwxr-xr-x 3 me staff 102 Apr 11 14:14 . -rw-r--r-- 1 root staff 4 Apr 11 14:14 yourfile
We created a directory, and wrote a file as root. Since root owns the file, we cannot write to it, nor can we chmod:
14:15 mybox:mydir echo bar > yourfile -bash: yourfile: Permission denied 14:15 mybox:mydir chmod a+x yourfile chmod: Unable to change file mode on yourfile: Operation not permitted
However, we do have write permission to the directory, so we can replace the file to get ownership:
14:15 mybox:mydir mv yourfile yourfile2 14:15 mybox:mydir cp yourfile2 yourfile 14:15 mybox:mydir ls -ld . yourfile drwxr-xr-x 4 me staff 136 Apr 11 14:15 . -rw-r--r-- 1 me staff 4 Apr 11 14:15 yourfile
And now that we are the owner, we can of course do what we want with that file:
14:15 mybox:mydir echo bar > yourfile 14:15 mybox:mydir chmod a+x yourfile 14:16 mybox:mydir cat yourfile bar
Similarly, any user with write permission to any directory in the full path leading to the file can replace the directory structure from that point on, thus gaining ownership of the file with the given name. The ownership or permissions of the actual original file (which we renamed to "yourfile2") isn't changed, of course.
14:17 mybox:mydir ls -l yourfile2 -rw-r--r-- 1 root staff 4 Apr 11 14:14 yourfile2
chmod command fairly directly invokes the system call of the same name; the man page for the
chmod(2) system call (on Linux 4.10) says:
The effective UID of the calling process must match the owner of the file, or the process must be privileged (Linux: it must have the
If the calling process is not privileged (Linux: does not have the
CAP_FSETIDcapability), and the group of the file does not match the effective group ID of the process or one of its supplementary group IDs, the
S_ISGIDbit will be turned off, but this will not cause an error to be returned.
So yes, a process running as root can change any file's permissions if it has not dropped the
Also of interest is
chown; the man page for
Only a privileged process (Linux: one with the
CAP_CHOWNcapability) may change the owner of a file. The owner of a file may change the group of the file to any group of which that owner is a member. A privileged process (Linux: with
CAP_CHOWN) may change the group arbitrarily.