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I am working on a Debian 8 system that I run on custom hardware built around ARM926, aiming to get 3G modems connect automatically when the system is powered on. I am using Raspberry Pi and Raspbian as a reference setup which worked almost out-of-box, needing only a script that uses mmcli to establish the connection. Both systems have version 4.1.18 of kernel, Raspbian by default and the custom system as a modification by me.

The modem that I am using for testing is Huawei E3131, but the aim is not to limit the hardware support to certain specific modems. The aim is to support any modem supported by kernel and ModemManager, perhaps excluding some certain problematic models.

Right now, the only apparent difference between what is happening in the systems is related to the wwan0 interface. On the Pi system, the interface appears automatically and is assigned an ip after a while once the modem has been plugged (or after the system start-up, if the modem was already plugged). On the custom system, however, the interface won't appear in the listing that I get commanding ifconfig without arguments, even though it seems to exist if I command ifconfig wwan0.

Even though the interface is not appearing, I can still use mmcli to establish a connection, but it seems like there is no way to use the connection. According to comparison of logs and what is told by the output of mmcli -m 0, the modem really seems to connect as it does on the Pi system. There are minor differences between the logs, but they really seem minor to me. The problems reported exist on the Pi system too.

EDIT: I tried another modem, Telewell TW-LTE/4G/3G+, on both systems. I had to add a driver into kernel of the custom system and install libqmi-proxy, but after that, what happened was exactly the same as with Huawei E3131.

I am attaching the relevant syslogs (regarding Huawei E3131) here, and I can provide other information too if that's needed. I just don't know what else is relevant.

One thing that is missing from the log of the custom system that exists in the log of the Pi system is prints from dhcpcd and avahi-daemon. Those were not installed at the time of making these logs, but at least mere installing of them didn't change anything.

Syslog of the custom system:

Feb 10 13:10:52 kernel: usb 1-1.3: new full-speed USB device number 4 using at91_ohci
Feb 10 13:10:53 kernel: usb 1-1.3: New USB device found, idVendor=12d1, idProduct=1506
Feb 10 13:10:53 kernel: usb 1-1.3: New USB device strings: Mfr=3, Product=2, SerialNumber=0
Feb 10 13:10:53 kernel: usb 1-1.3: Product: HUAWEI Mobile
Feb 10 13:10:53 kernel: usb 1-1.3: Manufacturer: HUAWEI
Feb 10 13:10:53 kernel: usb-storage 1-1.3:1.4: USB Mass Storage device detected
Feb 10 13:10:53 kernel: scsi host2: usb-storage 1-1.3:1.4
Feb 10 13:10:53 kernel: usb-storage 1-1.3:1.5: USB Mass Storage device detected
Feb 10 13:10:53 kernel: scsi host3: usb-storage 1-1.3:1.5
Feb 10 13:10:54 kernel: scsi 2:0:0:0: CD-ROM            HUAWEI   Mass Storage     2.31 PQ: 0 ANSI: 2
Feb 10 13:10:54 kernel: scsi 2:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg0 type 5
Feb 10 13:10:54 kernel: scsi 3:0:0:0: Direct-Access     HUAWEI   SD Storage       2.31 PQ: 0 ANSI: 2
Feb 10 13:10:54 kernel: sd 3:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg1 type 0
Feb 10 13:10:54 kernel: usbcore: registered new interface driver option
Feb 10 13:10:54 kernel: usbserial: USB Serial support registered for GSM modem (1-port)
Feb 10 13:10:54 kernel: option 1-1.3:1.0: GSM modem (1-port) converter detected
Feb 10 13:10:54 kernel: sd 3:0:0:0: [sda] Attached SCSI removable disk
Feb 10 13:10:54 kernel: usbcore: registered new interface driver cdc_ncm
Feb 10 13:10:54 kernel: usb 1-1.3: GSM modem (1-port) converter now attached to ttyUSB0
Feb 10 13:10:54 kernel: option 1-1.3:1.2: GSM modem (1-port) converter detected
Feb 10 13:10:54 kernel: usbcore: registered new interface driver cdc_wdm
Feb 10 13:10:54 systemd[1]: Starting user-0.slice.
Feb 10 13:10:54 systemd[1]: Created slice user-0.slice.
Feb 10 13:10:54 kernel: usb 1-1.3: GSM modem (1-port) converter now attached to ttyUSB1
Feb 10 13:10:54 kernel: option 1-1.3:1.3: GSM modem (1-port) converter detected
Feb 10 13:10:54 kernel: usb 1-1.3: GSM modem (1-port) converter now attached to ttyUSB2
Feb 10 13:10:54 kernel: huawei_cdc_ncm 1-1.3:1.1: MAC-Address: 58:2c:80:13:92:63
Feb 10 13:10:54 kernel: huawei_cdc_ncm 1-1.3:1.1: setting rx_max = 16384
Feb 10 13:10:54 kernel: huawei_cdc_ncm 1-1.3:1.1: setting tx_max = 16384
Feb 10 13:10:54 kernel: huawei_cdc_ncm 1-1.3:1.1: cdc-wdm0: USB WDM device
Feb 10 13:10:54 kernel: huawei_cdc_ncm 1-1.3:1.1 wwan0: register 'huawei_cdc_ncm' at usb-at91-1.3, Huawei CDC NCM device, 58:2c:80:13:92:63
Feb 10 13:10:54 kernel: usbcore: registered new interface driver huawei_cdc_ncm
Feb 10 13:10:54 logger: usb_modeswitch: switched to 12d1:1506 on 001/004
Feb 10 13:10:55 NetworkManager[957]: <info> devices added (path: /sys/devices/soc0/ahb/500000.ohci/usb1/1-1/1-1.3/1-1.3:1.1/net/wwan0, iface: wwan0)
Feb 10 13:10:55 NetworkManager[957]: <info> device added (path: /sys/devices/soc0/ahb/500000.ohci/usb1/1-1/1-1.3/1-1.3:1.1/net/wwan0, iface: wwan0): no ifupdown configuration found.
Feb 10 13:10:55 systemd[1]: Starting Session c1 of user root.
Feb 10 13:10:55 systemd[1]: Started Session c1 of user root.
Feb 10 13:10:55 systemd[1]: Starting User Manager for UID 0...
Feb 10 13:10:55 ModemManager[954]: <warn>  (ttyUSB2): port attributes not fully set
Feb 10 13:10:56 systemd[1]: Started USB_ModeSwitch.
Feb 10 13:10:56 ModemManager[954]: <warn>  (ttyUSB1): port attributes not fully set
Feb 10 13:10:56 dhclient: DHCPDISCOVER on eth0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 interval 7
Feb 10 13:10:56 dhclient: DHCPREQUEST on eth0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67
Feb 10 13:10:56 dhclient: DHCPOFFER from 82.195.210.40
Feb 10 13:10:56 dhclient: DHCPACK from 82.195.210.40
Feb 10 13:10:56 systemd[1161]: Starting Paths.
Feb 10 13:10:56 systemd[1161]: Reached target Paths.
Feb 10 13:10:56 systemd[1161]: Starting Timers.
Feb 10 13:10:56 systemd[1161]: Reached target Timers.
Feb 10 13:10:56 systemd[1161]: Starting Sockets.
Feb 10 13:10:56 systemd[1161]: Reached target Sockets.
Feb 10 13:10:56 systemd[1161]: Starting Basic System.
Feb 10 13:10:56 systemd[1161]: Reached target Basic System.
Feb 10 13:10:57 systemd[1161]: Starting Default.
Feb 10 13:10:57 systemd[1161]: Reached target Default.
Feb 10 13:10:57 systemd[1161]: Startup finished in 665ms.
Feb 10 13:10:57 systemd[1]: Started User Manager for UID 0.
Feb 10 13:10:57 ModemManager[954]: <warn>  (ttyUSB0): port attributes not fully set
Feb 10 13:10:57 dhclient: bound to 82.195.211.143 -- renewal in 43954 seconds.
Feb 10 13:10:59 ModemManager[954]: <warn>  (ttyUSB2): port attributes not fully set
Feb 10 13:10:59 ModemManager[954]: <warn>  (ttyUSB1): port attributes not fully set
Feb 10 13:11:15 ModemManager[954]: <info>  Creating modem with plugin 'Huawei' and '5' ports
Feb 10 13:11:15 ModemManager[954]: <warn>  Could not grab port (tty/ttyUSB1): 'Cannot add port 'tty/ttyUSB1', unhandled serial type'
Feb 10 13:11:15 ModemManager[954]: <warn>  (ttyUSB2): port attributes not fully set
Feb 10 13:11:15 ModemManager[954]: <info>  Modem for device at '/sys/devices/soc0/ahb/500000.ohci/usb1/1-1/1-1.3' successfully created
Feb 10 13:11:16 ModemManager[954]: Error while checking ^SYSCFGEX format: Unknown error
Feb 10 13:11:22 ModemManager[954]: Invalid mobile equipment error code: 50
Feb 10 13:11:22 ModemManager[954]: <info>  Modem: state changed (unknown -> disabled)
Feb 10 13:11:22 NetworkManager[957]: <warn> (ttyUSB2): failed to look up interface index
Feb 10 13:11:22 ModemManager[954]: <info>  Modem /org/freedesktop/ModemManager1/Modem/0: state changed (disabled -> enabling)
Feb 10 13:11:22 NetworkManager[957]: <info> (ttyUSB2): modem state changed, 'disabled' --> 'enabling' (reason: user preference)
Feb 10 13:11:22 NetworkManager[957]: <info> (ttyUSB2): new Broadband device (driver: 'huawei_cdc_ncm, option1' ifindex: 0)
Feb 10 13:11:22 NetworkManager[957]: <info> (ttyUSB2): exported as /org/freedesktop/NetworkManager/Devices/3
Feb 10 13:11:22 NetworkManager[957]: <info> (ttyUSB2): device state change: unmanaged -> unavailable (reason 'managed') [10 20 2]
Feb 10 13:11:22 ModemManager[954]: <warn>  (ttyUSB2): port attributes not fully set
Feb 10 13:11:22 NetworkManager[957]: <info> (ttyUSB2): preparing device
Feb 10 13:11:22 NetworkManager[957]: <info> (ttyUSB2): modem state 'enabling'
Feb 10 13:11:22 NetworkManager[957]: <info> (ttyUSB2): device state change: unavailable -> disconnected (reason 'none') [20 30 0]
Feb 10 13:11:23 ModemManager[954]: <info>  Modem /org/freedesktop/ModemManager1/Modem/0: 3GPP Registration state changed (unknown -> registering)
Feb 10 13:11:24 ModemManager[954]: <info>  Modem /org/freedesktop/ModemManager1/Modem/0: 3GPP Registration state changed (registering -> home)
Feb 10 13:11:24 ModemManager[954]: <info>  Modem /org/freedesktop/ModemManager1/Modem/0: 3GPP location updated (MCC: '0', MNC: '0', Location area code: '28', Cell ID: '689378')
Feb 10 13:11:24 ModemManager[954]: <info>  Modem /org/freedesktop/ModemManager1/Modem/0: 3GPP location updated (MCC: '244', MNC: '12', Location area code: '28', Cell ID: '689378')
Feb 10 13:11:26 ModemManager[954]: <info>  Modem /org/freedesktop/ModemManager1/Modem/0: state changed (enabling -> registered)
Feb 10 13:11:26 NetworkManager[957]: <info> (ttyUSB2): modem state changed, 'enabling' --> 'registered' (reason: user-requested)
Feb 10 13:11:53 ModemManager[954]: <info>  Simple connect started...
Feb 10 13:11:53 ModemManager[954]: <info>  Simple connect state (4/8): Wait to get fully enabled
Feb 10 13:11:53 ModemManager[954]: <info>  Simple connect state (5/8): Register
Feb 10 13:11:53 ModemManager[954]: <info>  Simple connect state (6/8): Bearer
Feb 10 13:11:53 ModemManager[954]: <info>  Simple connect state (7/8): Connect
Feb 10 13:11:53 ModemManager[954]: <info>  Modem /org/freedesktop/ModemManager1/Modem/0: state changed (registered -> connecting)
Feb 10 13:11:53 NetworkManager[957]: <info> (ttyUSB2): modem state changed, 'registered' --> 'connecting' (reason: user-requested)
Feb 10 13:11:56 ModemManager[954]: <info>  Modem /org/freedesktop/ModemManager1/Modem/0: state changed (connecting -> connected)
Feb 10 13:11:56 ModemManager[954]: <info>  Simple connect state (8/8): All done
Feb 10 13:11:56 NetworkManager[957]: <info> (ttyUSB2): modem state changed, 'connecting' --> 'connected' (reason: user-requested)
Feb 10 13:14:20 dhclient: Internet Systems Consortium DHCP Client 4.3.1
Feb 10 13:14:20 dhclient: Copyright 2004-2014 Internet Systems Consortium.
Feb 10 13:14:20 dhclient: All rights reserved.
Feb 10 13:14:20 dhclient: For info, please visit https://www.isc.org/software/dhcp/
Feb 10 13:14:20 dhclient: 
Feb 10 13:14:20 dhclient: Listening on LPF/wwan0/58:2c:80:13:92:63
Feb 10 13:14:20 dhclient: Sending on   LPF/wwan0/58:2c:80:13:92:63
Feb 10 13:14:20 dhclient: Sending on   Socket/fallback
Feb 10 13:14:20 dhclient: DHCPREQUEST on wwan0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67
Feb 10 13:14:20 dhclient: DHCPNAK from 37.33.16.241
Feb 10 13:14:20 dhclient: DHCPDISCOVER on wwan0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 interval 4
Feb 10 13:14:20 dhclient: DHCPREQUEST on wwan0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67
Feb 10 13:14:20 dhclient: DHCPOFFER from 37.33.16.241
Feb 10 13:14:20 dhclient: DHCPACK from 37.33.16.241
Feb 10 13:14:20 dhclient: bound to 37.33.16.243 -- renewal in 232568 seconds.
Feb 10 13:14:22 ntpd[985]: Listen normally on 6 wwan0 37.33.16.243 UDP 123
Feb 10 13:14:22 ntpd[985]: Listen normally on 7 wwan0 fe80::5a2c:80ff:fe13:9263 UDP 123
Feb 10 13:14:22 ntpd[985]: peers refreshed

Syslog of the Pi system:

Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi kernel: [   70.179443] usb 1-1.5.4: new high-speed USB device number 9 using dwc_otg
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi kernel: [   70.280330] usb 1-1.5.4: New USB device found, idVendor=12d1, idProduct=1506
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi kernel: [   70.280349] usb 1-1.5.4: New USB device strings: Mfr=3, Product=2, SerialNumber=0
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi kernel: [   70.280362] usb 1-1.5.4: Product: HUAWEI Mobile
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi kernel: [   70.280375] usb 1-1.5.4: Manufacturer: HUAWEI
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi kernel: [   70.284114] usb-storage 1-1.5.4:1.4: USB Mass Storage device detected
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi kernel: [   70.285173] scsi host2: usb-storage 1-1.5.4:1.4
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi kernel: [   70.286131] usb-storage 1-1.5.4:1.5: USB Mass Storage device detected
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi kernel: [   70.286494] scsi host3: usb-storage 1-1.5.4:1.5
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi systemd-udevd[871]: failed to execute '/lib/udev/mtp-probe' 'mtp-probe /sys/devices/platform/soc/3f980000.usb/usb1/1-1/1-1.5/1-1.5.4 1 9': No such file or directory
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi kernel: [   70.320269] usbcore: registered new interface driver cdc_ncm
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi kernel: [   70.324621] usbcore: registered new interface driver cdc_wdm
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi kernel: [   70.331163] usbcore: registered new interface driver usbserial
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi kernel: [   70.331276] usbcore: registered new interface driver usbserial_generic
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi kernel: [   70.331375] usbserial: USB Serial support registered for generic
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi kernel: [   70.332798] huawei_cdc_ncm 1-1.5.4:1.1: MAC-Address: 58:2c:80:13:92:63
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi kernel: [   70.332858] huawei_cdc_ncm 1-1.5.4:1.1: setting rx_max = 16384
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi kernel: [   70.333498] huawei_cdc_ncm 1-1.5.4:1.1: setting tx_max = 16384
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi kernel: [   70.334914] huawei_cdc_ncm 1-1.5.4:1.1: cdc-wdm0: USB WDM device
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi kernel: [   70.336971] huawei_cdc_ncm 1-1.5.4:1.1 wwan0: register 'huawei_cdc_ncm' at usb-3f980000.usb-1.5.4, Huawei CDC NCM device, 58:2c:80:13:92:63
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi kernel: [   70.337760] usbcore: registered new interface driver huawei_cdc_ncm
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi kernel: [   70.348717] usbcore: registered new interface driver option
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi kernel: [   70.348838] usbserial: USB Serial support registered for GSM modem (1-port)
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi kernel: [   70.350449] option 1-1.5.4:1.0: GSM modem (1-port) converter detected
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi kernel: [   70.351000] usb 1-1.5.4: GSM modem (1-port) converter now attached to ttyUSB0
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi kernel: [   70.351174] option 1-1.5.4:1.2: GSM modem (1-port) converter detected
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi kernel: [   70.351477] usb 1-1.5.4: GSM modem (1-port) converter now attached to ttyUSB1
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi kernel: [   70.351550] option 1-1.5.4:1.3: GSM modem (1-port) converter detected
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi kernel: [   70.351695] usb 1-1.5.4: GSM modem (1-port) converter now attached to ttyUSB2
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi logger: usb_modeswitch: switched to 12d1:1506 on 001/009
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi NetworkManager[385]: <info> devices added (path: /sys/devices/platform/soc/3f980000.usb/usb1/1-1/1-1.5/1-1.5.4/1-1.5.4:1.1/net/wwan0, iface: wwan0)
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi NetworkManager[385]: <info> device added (path: /sys/devices/platform/soc/3f980000.usb/usb1/1-1/1-1.5/1-1.5.4/1-1.5.4:1.1/net/wwan0, iface: wwan0): no ifupdown configuration found.
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi dhcpcd[396]: wwan0: adding address fe80::3d2:b0ae:25df:f0c5
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi ModemManager[386]: <warn>  (ttyUSB1): port attributes not fully set
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi ModemManager[386]: <warn>  (ttyUSB2): port attributes not fully set
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi dhcpcd[396]: wwan0: waiting for carrier
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi dhcpcd[396]: wwan0: carrier acquired
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi dhcpcd[396]: wwan0: IAID 80:13:92:63
Feb 10 12:45:20 raspberrypi dhcpcd[396]: wwan0: rebinding lease of 37.136.135.101
Feb 10 12:45:21 raspberrypi kernel: [   71.280158] scsi 2:0:0:0: CD-ROM            HUAWEI   Mass Storage     2.31 PQ: 0 ANSI: 2
Feb 10 12:45:21 raspberrypi kernel: [   71.284820] scsi 3:0:0:0: Direct-Access     HUAWEI   SD Storage       2.31 PQ: 0 ANSI: 2
Feb 10 12:45:21 raspberrypi kernel: [   71.287199] sd 3:0:0:0: [sda] Attached SCSI removable disk
Feb 10 12:45:21 raspberrypi kernel: [   71.294817] scsi 2:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg0 type 5
Feb 10 12:45:21 raspberrypi kernel: [   71.296390] sd 3:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg1 type 0
Feb 10 12:45:21 raspberrypi kernel: [   71.296999] sr 2:0:0:0: [sr0] scsi-1 drive
Feb 10 12:45:21 raspberrypi kernel: [   71.297014] cdrom: Uniform CD-ROM driver Revision: 3.20
Feb 10 12:45:21 raspberrypi kernel: [   71.301150] sr 2:0:0:0: Attached scsi CD-ROM sr0
Feb 10 12:45:21 raspberrypi systemd[1]: Started USB_ModeSwitch.
Feb 10 12:45:21 raspberrypi ModemManager[386]: <warn>  (ttyUSB0): port attributes not fully set
Feb 10 12:45:21 raspberrypi dhcpcd[396]: wwan0: soliciting an IPv6 router
Feb 10 12:45:21 raspberrypi kernel: [   71.598335] ISO 9660 Extensions: Microsoft Joliet Level 1
Feb 10 12:45:21 raspberrypi kernel: [   71.604495] ISOFS: changing to secondary root
Feb 10 12:45:21 raspberrypi org.gtk.Private.UDisks2VolumeMonitor[683]: index_parse.c:191: indx_parse(): error opening /media/pi/Cyfrowy Polsat/BDMV/index.bdmv
Feb 10 12:45:21 raspberrypi org.gtk.Private.UDisks2VolumeMonitor[683]: index_parse.c:191: indx_parse(): error opening /media/pi/Cyfrowy Polsat/BDMV/BACKUP/index.bdmv
Feb 10 12:45:21 raspberrypi avahi-daemon[391]: Joining mDNS multicast group on interface wwan0.IPv6 with address fe80::3d2:b0ae:25df:f0c5.
Feb 10 12:45:21 raspberrypi avahi-daemon[391]: New relevant interface wwan0.IPv6 for mDNS.
Feb 10 12:45:21 raspberrypi avahi-daemon[391]: Registering new address record for fe80::3d2:b0ae:25df:f0c5 on wwan0.*.
Feb 10 12:45:21 raspberrypi udisksd[769]: Mounted /dev/sr0 at /media/pi/Cyfrowy Polsat on behalf of uid 1000
Feb 10 12:45:23 raspberrypi ntpd[535]: Listen normally on 4 wwan0 fe80::3d2:b0ae:25df:f0c5 UDP 123
Feb 10 12:45:23 raspberrypi ntpd[535]: peers refreshed
Feb 10 12:45:23 raspberrypi ntpd_intres[537]: host name not found: 0.debian.pool.ntp.org
Feb 10 12:45:23 raspberrypi ntpd_intres[537]: host name not found: 1.debian.pool.ntp.org
Feb 10 12:45:23 raspberrypi ntpd_intres[537]: host name not found: 2.debian.pool.ntp.org
Feb 10 12:45:23 raspberrypi ntpd_intres[537]: host name not found: 3.debian.pool.ntp.org
Feb 10 12:45:23 raspberrypi ModemManager[386]: <warn>  (ttyUSB1): port attributes not fully set
Feb 10 12:45:23 raspberrypi ModemManager[386]: <warn>  (ttyUSB2): port attributes not fully set
Feb 10 12:45:25 raspberrypi dhcpcd[396]: wwan0: probing for an IPv4LL address
Feb 10 12:45:25 raspberrypi dhcpcd[396]: wwan0: DHCP lease expired
Feb 10 12:45:25 raspberrypi dhcpcd[396]: wwan0: soliciting a DHCP lease
Feb 10 12:45:25 raspberrypi ntpd_intres[537]: host name not found: 0.debian.pool.ntp.org
Feb 10 12:45:25 raspberrypi ntpd_intres[537]: host name not found: 1.debian.pool.ntp.org
Feb 10 12:45:25 raspberrypi ntpd_intres[537]: host name not found: 2.debian.pool.ntp.org
Feb 10 12:45:25 raspberrypi ntpd_intres[537]: host name not found: 3.debian.pool.ntp.org
Feb 10 12:45:29 raspberrypi dhcpcd[396]: wwan0: using IPv4LL address 169.254.169.80
Feb 10 12:45:29 raspberrypi avahi-daemon[391]: Joining mDNS multicast group on interface wwan0.IPv4 with address 169.254.169.80.
Feb 10 12:45:29 raspberrypi dhcpcd[396]: wwan0: adding route to 169.254.0.0/16
Feb 10 12:45:29 raspberrypi avahi-daemon[391]: New relevant interface wwan0.IPv4 for mDNS.
Feb 10 12:45:29 raspberrypi avahi-daemon[391]: Registering new address record for 169.254.169.80 on wwan0.IPv4.
Feb 10 12:45:31 raspberrypi ntpd[535]: Listen normally on 5 wwan0 169.254.169.80 UDP 123
Feb 10 12:45:31 raspberrypi ntpd[535]: peers refreshed
Feb 10 12:45:33 raspberrypi ntpd_intres[537]: host name not found: 0.debian.pool.ntp.org
Feb 10 12:45:33 raspberrypi ntpd_intres[537]: host name not found: 1.debian.pool.ntp.org
Feb 10 12:45:33 raspberrypi ntpd_intres[537]: host name not found: 2.debian.pool.ntp.org
Feb 10 12:45:33 raspberrypi ntpd_intres[537]: host name not found: 3.debian.pool.ntp.org
Feb 10 12:45:33 raspberrypi dhcpcd[396]: wwan0: no IPv6 Routers available
Feb 10 12:45:39 raspberrypi ModemManager[386]: <info>  Creating modem with plugin 'Huawei' and '5' ports
Feb 10 12:45:39 raspberrypi ModemManager[386]: <warn>  Could not grab port (tty/ttyUSB1): 'Cannot add port 'tty/ttyUSB1', unhandled serial type'
Feb 10 12:45:39 raspberrypi ModemManager[386]: <warn>  (ttyUSB2): port attributes not fully set
Feb 10 12:45:39 raspberrypi ModemManager[386]: <info>  Modem for device at '/sys/devices/platform/soc/3f980000.usb/usb1/1-1/1-1.5/1-1.5.4' successfully created
Feb 10 12:45:40 raspberrypi ModemManager[386]: Error while checking ^SYSCFGEX format: Unknown error
Feb 10 12:45:43 raspberrypi ModemManager[386]: Invalid mobile equipment error code: 50
Feb 10 12:45:43 raspberrypi rsyslogd-2007: action 'action 17' suspended, next retry is Fri Feb 10 12:46:13 2017 [try http://www.rsyslog.com/e/2007 ]
Feb 10 12:45:43 raspberrypi ModemManager[386]: <info>  Modem: state changed (unknown -> disabled)
Feb 10 12:45:43 raspberrypi NetworkManager[385]: <warn> (ttyUSB2): failed to look up interface index
Feb 10 12:45:43 raspberrypi NetworkManager[385]: <info> (ttyUSB2): modem state changed, 'disabled' --> 'enabling' (reason: user preference)
Feb 10 12:45:43 raspberrypi NetworkManager[385]: <info> (ttyUSB2): new Broadband device (driver: 'huawei_cdc_ncm, option1' ifindex: 0)
Feb 10 12:45:43 raspberrypi NetworkManager[385]: <info> (ttyUSB2): exported as /org/freedesktop/NetworkManager/Devices/3
Feb 10 12:45:43 raspberrypi NetworkManager[385]: <info> (ttyUSB2): device state change: unmanaged -> unavailable (reason 'managed') [10 20 2]
Feb 10 12:45:43 raspberrypi ModemManager[386]: <info>  Modem /org/freedesktop/ModemManager1/Modem/0: state changed (disabled -> enabling)
Feb 10 12:45:43 raspberrypi ModemManager[386]: <warn>  (ttyUSB2): port attributes not fully set
Feb 10 12:45:43 raspberrypi NetworkManager[385]: <info> (ttyUSB2): preparing device
Feb 10 12:45:43 raspberrypi NetworkManager[385]: <info> (ttyUSB2): modem state 'enabling'
Feb 10 12:45:43 raspberrypi NetworkManager[385]: <info> (ttyUSB2): device state change: unavailable -> disconnected (reason 'none') [20 30 0]
Feb 10 12:45:43 raspberrypi ModemManager[386]: <info>  Modem /org/freedesktop/ModemManager1/Modem/0: 3GPP Registration state changed (unknown -> registering)
Feb 10 12:45:43 raspberrypi ModemManager[386]: <info>  Modem /org/freedesktop/ModemManager1/Modem/0: 3GPP Registration state changed (registering -> home)
Feb 10 12:45:43 raspberrypi ModemManager[386]: <info>  Modem /org/freedesktop/ModemManager1/Modem/0: 3GPP location updated (MCC: '0', MNC: '0', Location area code: '28', Cell ID: '689378')
Feb 10 12:45:43 raspberrypi ModemManager[386]: <info>  Modem /org/freedesktop/ModemManager1/Modem/0: 3GPP location updated (MCC: '244', MNC: '12', Location area code: '28', Cell ID: '689378')
Feb 10 12:45:43 raspberrypi ModemManager[386]: <info>  Modem /org/freedesktop/ModemManager1/Modem/0: state changed (enabling -> registered)
Feb 10 12:45:43 raspberrypi NetworkManager[385]: <info> (ttyUSB2): modem state changed, 'enabling' --> 'registered' (reason: user-requested)
Feb 10 12:46:00 raspberrypi wpa_supplicant[548]: wlan0: Failed to initiate sched scan
Feb 10 12:46:19 raspberrypi rsyslogd-2007: action 'action 17' suspended, next retry is Fri Feb 10 12:46:49 2017 [try http://www.rsyslog.com/e/2007 ]
Feb 10 12:46:22 raspberrypi ModemManager[386]: <info>  Simple connect started...
Feb 10 12:46:22 raspberrypi ModemManager[386]: <info>  Simple connect state (4/8): Wait to get fully enabled
Feb 10 12:46:22 raspberrypi ModemManager[386]: <info>  Simple connect state (5/8): Register
Feb 10 12:46:22 raspberrypi ModemManager[386]: <info>  Simple connect state (6/8): Bearer
Feb 10 12:46:22 raspberrypi ModemManager[386]: <info>  Simple connect state (7/8): Connect
Feb 10 12:46:22 raspberrypi ModemManager[386]: <info>  Modem /org/freedesktop/ModemManager1/Modem/0: state changed (registered -> connecting)
Feb 10 12:46:22 raspberrypi NetworkManager[385]: <info> (ttyUSB2): modem state changed, 'registered' --> 'connecting' (reason: user-requested)
Feb 10 12:46:27 raspberrypi ModemManager[386]: <info>  Modem /org/freedesktop/ModemManager1/Modem/0: state changed (connecting -> connected)
Feb 10 12:46:27 raspberrypi ModemManager[386]: <info>  Simple connect state (8/8): All done
Feb 10 12:46:27 raspberrypi NetworkManager[385]: <info> (ttyUSB2): modem state changed, 'connecting' --> 'connected' (reason: user-requested)
Feb 10 12:46:53 raspberrypi wpa_supplicant[548]: wlan0: Failed to initiate sched scan
Feb 10 12:46:53 raspberrypi rsyslogd-2007: action 'action 17' suspended, next retry is Fri Feb 10 12:47:23 2017 [try http://www.rsyslog.com/e/2007 ]
Feb 10 12:47:30 raspberrypi dhcpcd[396]: wwan0: offered 178.55.198.223 from 178.55.198.193
Feb 10 12:47:30 raspberrypi rsyslogd-2007: action 'action 17' suspended, next retry is Fri Feb 10 12:48:00 2017 [try http://www.rsyslog.com/e/2007 ]
Feb 10 12:47:35 raspberrypi dhcpcd[396]: wwan0: leased 178.55.198.223 for 518400 seconds
Feb 10 12:47:35 raspberrypi dhcpcd[396]: wwan0: adding route to 178.55.198.192/26
Feb 10 12:47:35 raspberrypi dhcpcd[396]: wwan0: adding default route via 178.55.198.193
Feb 10 12:47:35 raspberrypi dhcpcd[396]: wwan0: deleting route to 169.254.0.0/16
Feb 10 12:47:35 raspberrypi avahi-daemon[391]: Registering new address record for 178.55.198.223 on wwan0.IPv4.
Feb 10 12:47:35 raspberrypi avahi-daemon[391]: Withdrawing address record for 169.254.169.80 on wwan0.
Feb 10 12:47:35 raspberrypi avahi-daemon[391]: Leaving mDNS multicast group on interface wwan0.IPv4 with address 169.254.169.80.
Feb 10 12:47:35 raspberrypi avahi-daemon[391]: Joining mDNS multicast group on interface wwan0.IPv4 with address 178.55.198.223.
1

I got this solved myself, and here is the solution for the case someone else finds it useful.

The core of the problem was that I had eth0 configured to get it's IP via dhcp in /etc/network/interfaces, while wwan0 was left for NetworkManager to handle. As far as I know, that would have been a valid solution otherwise, but I noticed that dhcpcd ended up completely disabling itself because of the configuration of eth0. With dhcpcd disabled, wwan0 didn't get it's IP. To be more precise, as far as I know, the problem was not having eth0 configured in /etc/network/interfaces, but more specifically having it configured to use dhcp there.

The solution was to remove configuration of eth0 from /etc/network/interfaces and let NetworkManager to handle that too. Installing dhcpcd was necessary, but that alone was not enough.

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