For example, if I type, sudo synaptic and enter a wrong password, I get 3 tries to get it right. I want sudo to only give me 1 try and exit with error code 1 if the password is incorrect.

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    Answer below, but I think this is a bad idea — it's going to result in passwords typed on the command line in cleartext by accident, because you're not going to change the default everywhere in the world. – mattdm Jan 14 '17 at 1:17

Go to user terminal (not root) and run sudo visudo. Default terminal editor should open.
Add these lines:

## Allow a user to attempt to enter a password 1 times
Defaults        passwd_tries=1

You should be ok.

Also see man sudoers

PS: About exit code, in my sudo when i run sudo ls;echo $? , after 3 wrong attempts i get exit code 1.

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