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I am attempting to install fdutils on Fedora 25, and running ./configure outputs the following:

checking whether make sets $(MAKE)... yes
checking for gcc... gcc
checking for C compiler default output file name... a.out
checking whether the C compiler works... yes
checking whether we are cross compiling... no
checking for suffix of executables... 
checking for suffix of object files... o
checking whether we are using the GNU C compiler... yes
checking whether gcc accepts -g... yes
checking for gcc option to accept ANSI C... none needed
checking how to run the C preprocessor... gcc -E
checking for egrep... grep -E
checking whether gcc needs -traditional... no
checking for a BSD-compatible install... /bin/install -c
checking whether ln -s works... yes
checking for install-info... /sbin/install-info
checking build system type... x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu
checking host system type... x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu
checking target system type... x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu
checking for an ANSI C-conforming const... yes
checking for inline... inline
checking for ANSI C header files... yes
checking for sys/types.h... yes
checking for sys/stat.h... yes
checking for stdlib.h... yes
checking for string.h... yes
checking for memory.h... yes
checking for strings.h... yes
checking for inttypes.h... yes
checking for stdint.h... yes
checking for unistd.h... yes
checking linux/ext_fs.h usability... no
checking linux/ext_fs.h presence... no
checking for linux/ext_fs.h... no
checking linux/xia_fs.h usability... no
checking linux/xia_fs.h presence... no
checking for linux/xia_fs.h... no
checking sys/sysmacros.h usability... yes
checking sys/sysmacros.h presence... yes
checking for sys/sysmacros.h... yes
configure: creating ./config.status
config.status: creating Makefile
config.status: creating src/Makefile
config.status: creating doc/Makefile
config.status: creating config.h
config.status: config.h is unchanged

Notice the lines towards the bottom which failed, particularly looking for linux/ext_fs.h and linux/xia_fs.h. As these header files are missing, running make fails, so I cannot install the fdutils package. I have tried using apt-get install e2fslibs, however it was unable to find the package.

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Your title states you're using fedora. Yet, you're using apt. That isn't possible, dnf is the package manager.

You could do this: yum install e2fsprogs-devel

But it does not have ext_fs.h. It's not clear what you're trying to achieve and I'm assuming the software hasn't been updated in ages. No guarantees that installing that package will yield the results you're wanting.

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I did the recompile for a Fedora 23 environment facing the same problem. But to be exact: Your problem is not the missing EXT or XIA filesystem which are both handled by the configure script (opting it out, if the current environment does not have it), but the fdmount command expects EXT2 filesystem to be present and therefore demands the corresponding header file. Newer Linux distros seem to move this file into another place. I used following patch:

--- fdutils-5.5/src/fdmount.c.ORIG      2005-03-03 23:09:16.000000000 +0100
+++ fdutils-5.5/src/fdmount.c   2018-03-06 15:11:02.924092624 +0100
@@ -22,7 +22,7 @@
 #include <linux/ext_fs.h>
 #endif

-#include <linux/ext2_fs.h>
+#include <ext2fs/ext2_fs.h>

 #ifdef HAVE_LINUX_XIA_FS_H
 #include <linux/xia_fs.h>

With this and the presence of package e2fsprogs-devel (used command dnf to install), I could compile and install the package. You won't probably miss the XIAFS (Minix filesystem) and the old EXTFS (old Linux filesystem) ... except for very old floppy formatted that way (possible, but not likely).

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