Is there possibly any way to run, specifically, Firefox from this bash shell?
How to Geek was quite wrong, as readers quickly pointed out (q.v.), but was never corrected.
One can run Linux X applications on the Windows Subsystem for Linux, provided that they don't do something else that the WSL does not support. One just needs a Win32 X server running on the machine (or indeed an X server running elsewhere) to point them at. One has quite a few choices of Win32 X server for that.
This was reported within days of the initial beta release. Running Firefox was even in the reports.
There are far better sources on this than How to Geek. Reading through the article, that wasn't the only glaring factual error that leapt out. There are several there, including one that was even pointed out as an mistake not to make in the WSL release notes, which the How to Geek author did not read or check, obviously.
- Daniel Aleksandersen (2016-04-07). Running Linux desktop apps on the Windows Subsystem for Linux. SlightFuture.com.
- Chris Hoffmann (2016-04-14). Windows 10's Bash shell can run graphical Linux applications with this trick. PCWorld.
- Rob Williams (2016-04-12). Windows 10’s Bash Fling Produces Linux GUI App Offspring For Windows Desktop. HotWardWare.
Try installing and running MobaXterm (basic functionality is freeware) on Windows 10. It comes with a polished X Window server. You don't even need to use MobaXterm, just launch it, it starts a local X Window server automatically.
Log in from the MobaXterm console onto your WSL instance to see what the DISPLAY variable value is set to, and export that value into your WSL console session prior to attempting to launch firefox. It worked for me on Ubuntu 16.04 on WSL.