What would you recommend me to use: 7zip, xz, gzip, tar, etc which is more or less available on the most linux distributives and what does compression the best?
I first want to clarify that of the list you provided,
tar is the only one that is not a compression algorithm.
tar is short for Tape Archive, and is used to create archive files. In short, a single file that consists of one or more files.
In terms of availability,
7zip is widely available across UNIX (Linux/BSD/MacOS) and Windows systems. Therefore a
zip file is highly portable. Tools to compress/decompress
gzip files are also available on Windows systems, but are more commonly seen and used on UNIX systems.
7zip are known to have a better compression algorithm than
gzip, but use more memory and time to compress/decompress. This topic is nicely discussed here.
I would recommend using
gzip when less memory is available, and compression/decompression speed is a concern.
xz can be used when space is a concern and compression/decompression speed is not.
Some nice benchmarks on these algorithms can be found here. Note:
LZMA is the compression algorithm used by
Just use tar with gzip a la
tar -czvf <filename.tar.gz> /path/to/files
Very often the difference in compression algorithms is either negligible (e.g. bzip2) or is dependent on what kind of data you are talking about. For general-purpose compression, the best advice I think is just to stick with what is standard.
Also it just makes life easier to use the same formats as everyone else unless there is a clear and significant advantage. So you'll want to get used to just using tar with gzip (as above) and also ZIP because you'll find a lot of those available as well.