I have a .txt file that has 10781 lines in it. When I run wc -l on the file I get a return of 10780.

If I add a blank line at the end of the .txt I get the correct result of 10781. Can someone explain what exactly wc -l counts?


Probably your last line does not have a newline.

See this:

$ printf bla > file
$ wc -l file
0 file

$ man 1p wc

-l Write to the standard output the number of newlines in each input file.

On Unix it's good style to have a newline character at the end of text files. If you can't repair your files you can use these workarounds to count the last "line" always: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/28038633/wc-l-is-not-counting-last-of-the-file-if-it-does-not-have-end-of-line-character

  • ah, yes, that makes sense. Thank you @rudimeier – Bleakley Oct 4 '16 at 15:08
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    At the end of non-empty text files; your 0 length file is how we represent zero lines; if we add a newline, then it contains 1 line. :) I.e. it's a line terminator, not a file terminator. – Kaz Oct 4 '16 at 19:50
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    "On Unix it's good style to have a newline character at the end of text files." -- The only way a text file can not end in newline is if the file is empty. If it ends in any other character, then by definition it is not a text file, due to how POSIX describes what a text file is. – hvd Oct 4 '16 at 20:05
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    Actually I guess POSIX defined wc -l as is to make sure that cat a b | wc -l is always the same as wc -l a + wc -l b. Otherwise the output "total count" of wc -l a b would be ambiguous. – rudimeier Oct 4 '16 at 20:39

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