I recently installed xfce4 on my Dell Chromebook, through the crouton project. so I could run more programs on it. And possibly start to try some programming. I heard about Python but there isn't a lot of help on how to actually get it for xfce4. Also if you possibly could suggest a better version of Linux to use with Python that would be great too.
python -V in a terminal and see if there is any version pre-installed. If not, use one of the methods described here. My suggestion though, would be to consider using another Linux distro than Chrome OS. And not just because of this Python thing. You could try Ubuntu if you are a beginner or Debian. Look at some famous and widely supported distros. You will find Python pre-installed, too ;)
type in the terminal one of this "python", "python3" or "python -v". On the first two you will go to interactive mode, the latest will give you the version.
If you don't have a python interpreter, wich will be unusual, just
sudo apt-get install python python3". If don't use aptitude go for the package manager you like, or just build from source.