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First I'm going to say that I'm quite new to Linux and I want to do this for learning purposes.

So what are the steps necessary to install a GUI (probably a window manager, a display/login manager, a desktop environment and possibly more?) in Ubuntu 16.04 Server Edition that I've installed inside VirtualBox?

Also, what are the options that I have when installing the aforementioned components?

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You can install the ubuntu-desktop metapackage that will install all the bells and whistles of GUI for you (as it's dependencies and the dependencies of dependencies and so on):

sudo apt install ubuntu-desktop

ubuntu-desktop will install the following:

Window-manager: Compiz
Display-manager: LightDM
Desktop Environment: Unity

There are also many other *-desktop metapackages (e.g. xubuntu-desktop, lubuntu-desktop etc) with different options for WM, DM, SE and others. You can also install them separately if you want.

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