I've got Debian 8.5 running on top of Chrome OS, I plug in my Galaxy On5 and ChromeOS recognizes it instantly, Debian doesn't. I have mtp tools installed, and when I run mtp-detect I get the following output:
Unable to open ~/.mtpz-data for reading, MTPZ disabled. libmtp version: 1.1.8 Listing raw device(s) Device 0 (VID=04e8 and PID=6860) is a Samsung Galaxy models (MTP). Found 1 device(s): Samsung: Galaxy models (MTP) (04e8:6860) @ bus 1, dev 10 Attempting to connect device(s) ignoring libusb_claim_interface() = -6PTP_ERROR_IO: failed to open session, trying again after resetting USB interface LIBMTP libusb: Attempt to reset device inep: usb_get_endpoint_status(): No such device outep: usb_get_endpoint_status(): No such device libusb_open() failed!: No such device LIBMTP PANIC: Could not init USB on second attempt Unable to open raw device 0 OK.