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It seems that the Linux kernel (All POSIX OSs?) contains only 300+ system calls. Does this mean that any OS implementing those APIs (directly or by translation tables) can run software written for Linux (e.g. Firefox)?

If not - what is needed besides that?

Yes, this is a very basic question on a topic I'm only starting out with (OS design). Apparently it's not accepted on StackOverflow, and I was directed here instead. If it's not - please let me know. (And if so, if you know where it does belong, I'll be happy to hear.)

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A minimal implementation of Linux's system calls doesn't mean that an application will run correctly. There's much to the semantics of the calls that Linux applications may assume:

  • Linux-specific ioctl and fcntl values
  • Linux-specific virtual files in /sys, /proc, etc.
  • Presence of standard programs in /bin and elsewhere
  • Semantics of running processes such as the init process and (in some cases) DBus etc.

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