I'm attempting to write raw data to a USB device connected to my computer. I'm using Kali Linux, and I found the correct filepath: "/dev/usb/003/013" . However, when I try to write data to it I get an error.

root@kali:~/usb# printf "test" > /dev/bus/usb/003/013
bash: printf: write error: Invalid argument

I also tried using cat:

root@kali:~/usb# cat test > /dev/bus/usb/003/013 
cat: write error: Invalid argument

In the previous case the file 'test' does exist and have data in it. It seems that the system is unable to write to the file descriptor even though it is there.

After researching I've come to the conclusion that you either:

A. Need a USB driver that will interface with the device.

B. Use an SCSI Pass Through to write data directly to the Endpoints on the device.

I'm new to USB programming and although I'm game to try, I've never written a driver before. Any advice or help would be appreciated.

Is it possible to write raw data to the Device like I originally tried? If not, could you explain some options available to me?

  • 1
    I'm not super skilled with shell scripting, but how about trying echo "test" > /dev/bus/usb/003/013 instead of printf? Also, this might be a related question that could help.
    – Paradox
    Commented Jun 29, 2016 at 18:02
  • 2
    Usb devices are far more complex than simply pipes you read and write. You'll have to write code to manipulate them. You don't need to write a kernel driver. See libusb.org libusb.sourceforge.net/api-1.0. This is possibly Linux-specific. Commented Jun 29, 2016 at 18:48
  • @EdwardFalk if you will make an answer with that included then I will accept it as the solution. Thanks for the tip! Commented Jun 30, 2016 at 12:31
  • Sure; I'll throw in a little bit more info, too. Commented Jun 30, 2016 at 14:27

1 Answer 1


Usb devices are far more complex than simply pipes you read and write. You'll have to write code to manipulate them. You (probably) don't need to write a kernel driver. See http://libusb.info (née libusb.org) and http://libusb.sourceforge.net/api-1.0. This claims to work with Linux, OSX, Windows, Android, OpenBSD, etc. Under Mac OS X there are user-level functions in I/O Kit that will let you access USB. Under Windows, you may be able to use WinUSB, but it's complicated.

Here's a little diagram I drew once to help me understand the architecture of USB:

    ┌──────┐     │   device     ┌─────┐  ┌─────────┐  │
    │ Port ├──┐  │            ┌─┤ EP0 ├──┤ control │  │
    └──────┘  │  │ ┌────────┐ │ └─────┘  ├─────────┤  │
              ├────┤addr = 2├─┤ ┌─────┐  │         │  │
              │  │ └────────┘ ├─┤ EP1 ├──┤interface│  │
              │  │            │ └─────┘  │   #0    │  │
              │  │            │ ┌─────┐  ├─────────┤  │
              │  │            ├─┤ EP2 ├──┤         │  │
              │  │            │ └─────┘  │interface│  │
              │  │            │ ┌─────┐  │   #1    │  │
              │  │            └─┤ EP3 ├──┤         │  │
              │  │              └─────┘  └─────────┘  │
              │  ╰────────────────────────────────────╯

Executive summary: every device has an address (assigned by the O/S and subject to change), and up to (I think) 32 endpoints.

Within the device are one or more "interfaces". For example, a web cam might provide a "camera" interface and a "microphone" interface. A multi-function printer would provide several interfaces.

Endpoint 0 is used for control and configuration of the device, and the others are to access the various interfaces. Each interface has zero or more (usually more) endpoints.

Endpoints can be one of several transfer types:

  • Control Transfers are used to query and configure the device. Every device is required to support a minimum set of control statements. I believe that control transfers are only used with endpoint 0.
  • Bulk Transfers send or receive data at full bandwidth
  • Interrupt transfers (I'm not really sure how this is different from bulk transfers; USB doesn't have interrupts). Examples include keyboard and mouse
  • Isochronous transfers send or receive data at full bandwidth with realtime requirements but without reliability. Used for audio/video applications.

Also worth noting: a USB device can have multiple configurations, which control what interfaces are available and so forth. Changing a device configuration is almost like unplugging the device and plugging a different device in its place.

All of this information is laid out in device descriptors, config descriptors, interface descriptors, endpoint descriptors, etc., which can be queried via endpoint zero.

(Internally, data isn't a stream of bytes, it's packed into packets whose exact formats are part of the USB specification. For the most part, you don't need to worry about this as the controllers and drivers will manage this part for you.)

In practice, depending on your API library and operating system, you'll need to detect the device, read the various descriptors to find out what you're dealing with, optionally set its configuration (if the OS permits), open the interface, and open the endpoints.

For bulk endpoints, you can read and write raw data to them. For control transfers, the API library will provide function calls. I've never used interrupt or isochronous transfers; I'm sure your API library will have the relevant documentation.

More info: "Function" is a collection of interfaces that work together. It's not originally part of the USB spec, and it's up to the device driver to know which interfaces should be grouped together. The USB Working Group has defined device classes which support functions. This is done via the Interface Association Descriptor (IAD).

  • 1
    Updated libusb URL is libusb.info
    – Jellicle
    Commented Sep 23, 2016 at 19:49
  • Why did it move? Commented Sep 23, 2016 at 20:03
  • 3
    I'm upvoting this because it's a really nice summary of USB.
    – Amr Bekhit
    Commented Nov 28, 2017 at 13:54
  • 1
    Did you mean to use EP2 twice in your diagram?
    – Raven
    Commented Feb 11, 2019 at 17:43
  • 1
    "née libusb.org" :)
    – Déjà vu
    Commented Oct 21, 2023 at 3:20

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