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I would like to boot Fedora 23 Workstation x86_64 with a kernel from QubesOS 3.1. I have copied vmlinuz-4.1.13-9.pvops.qubes.x86_64 and initramfs-4.1.13-9.pvops.qubes.x86_64.img into the /boot directory and run grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/efi/EFI/fedora/grub.cfg to generate the menuitem.

menuentry 'Fedora (4.1.13-9.pvops.qubes.x86_64) 23 (Workstation Edition)' 
--class fedora 
--class gnu-linux 
--class gnu 
--class os 
--unrestricted $menuentry_id_option 
'gnulinux-4.1.13-9.pvops.qubes.x86_64-advanced-d43f46bc-7649-44ca-b02d-7599d115a8e8' {
        load_video
        insmod gzio
        insmod part_gpt
        insmod ext2
        set root='hd0,gpt6'
        if [ x$feature_platform_search_hint = xy ]; then
          search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root --hint-bios=hd0,gpt6 --hint-efi=hd0,gpt6 --hint-baremetal=ahci0,gpt6  440e2ced-56a2-432f-95e0-c5f1c33941a9
        else
          search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root 440e2ced-56a2-432f-95e0-c5f1c33941a9
        fi
        linuxefi /vmlinuz-4.1.13-9.pvops.qubes.x86_64 root=UUID=d43f46bc-7649-44ca-b02d-7599d115a8e8 ro rootflags=subvol=root00 rhgb quiet 
        initrdefi /initramfs-4.1.13-9.pvops.qubes.x86_64.img  

I have also tried to modify the original Fedora menuitem, only modifying vmlinuz* and initramfs* file name.

menuentry 'Modified original Fedora 23 menuitem' 
--class fedora 
--class gnu-linux 
--class gnu 
--class os 
--unrestricted $menuentry_id_option 
'gnulinux-4.4.8-300.fc23.x86_64-advanced-d43f46bc-7649-44ca-b02d-7599d115a8e8' {
        load_video
        set gfxpayload=keep
        insmod gzio
        insmod part_gpt
        insmod ext2
        set root='hd0,gpt6'
        if [ x$feature_platform_search_hint = xy ]; then
          search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root --hint-bios=hd0,gpt6 --hint-efi=hd0,gpt6 --hint-baremetal=ahci0,gpt6  440e2ced-56a2-432f-95e0-c5f1c33941a9
        else
          search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set=root 440e2ced-56a2-432f-95e0-c5f1c33941a9
        fi
        linuxefi /vmlinuz-4.1.13-9.pvops.qubes.x86_64 root=UUID=d43f46bc-7649-44ca-b02d-7599d115a8e8 ro rootflags=subvol=root00 rhgb quiet 
        initrdefi /initramfs-4.1.13-9.pvops.qubes.x86_64.img
}

In both cases, however, I see 4 large penguins upon booting and eventually Dracut tells me something failed and asks me for root password to fix it.

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I had to copy the modules from Qubes and regenerate the initramfs using the sudo dracut -f command.

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