Just hit this problem, and learned a lot from the chosen answer: Create random data with dd and get "partial read warning". Is the data after the warning now really random?

Unfortunately the suggested solution head -c is not portable.

For folks who insist that dd is the answer, please carefully read the linked answer which explains in great detail why dd can not be the answer. Also, please observe this:

$ dd bs=1000000 count=10 if=/dev/random of=random
dd: warning: partial read (89 bytes); suggest iflag=fullblock
0+10 records in
0+10 records out
143 bytes (143 B) copied, 99.3918 s, 0.0 kB/s
$ ls -l random ; du -kP random
-rw-rw-r-- 1 me me 143 Apr 22 19:19 random
4       random
$ pwd
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    dd is portable. If you don't mind the warning, or adjust your blocksize, is there a problem with using dd?
    – muru
    Commented Apr 22, 2016 at 21:35
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    @Guido yes, but dd is.
    – muru
    Commented Apr 22, 2016 at 22:30
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    @muru I am saying that dd bs=1000000 count=10 if=/dev/random of=/tmp/random results in a file containing less than 200 bytes. Now do you understand why dd isn't the right tool for the job?
    – Low Powah
    Commented Apr 22, 2016 at 23:08
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    @muru the only way to get a guaranteed number of bytes from dd is to either use a bs of 1 byte (as read() will return at least 1 byte) or to not use bs= and instead use obs= (and, optionally, ibs=) separately and pipe it into another dd with your count and an ibs= set to the obs= of the first. If you use bs= at all dd will write partial reads without buffering them to a known size. Using (i)bs=1000 count=10000 only guarantees 10k writes of up to 1000 bytes and will happily write out less than 10k * 1000 bytes if any of the reads return less. Commented Apr 16, 2018 at 6:43
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    @muru Because dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/null bs=1 count=10000000 takes far longer than with larger block sizes. It's simply not practical for many/most situations. Piping to another dd works and allows arbitrarily large reads and writes. Commented Apr 16, 2018 at 6:52

3 Answers 3


Unfortunately, to manipulate the content of a binary file, dd is pretty much the only tool in POSIX. Although most modern implementations of text processing tools (cat, sed, awk, …) can manipulate binary files, this is not required by POSIX: some older implementations do choke on null bytes, input not terminated by a newline, or invalid byte sequences in the ambient character encoding.

It is possible, but difficult, to use dd safely. The reason I spend a lot of energy steering people away from it is that there's a lot of advice out there that promotes dd in situations where it is neither useful nor safe.

The problem with dd is its notion of blocks: it assumes that a call to read returns one block; if read returns less data, you get a partial block, which throws things like skip and count off. Here's an example that illustrates the problem, where dd is reading from a pipe that delivers data relatively slowly:

yes hello | while read line; do echo $line; done | dd ibs=4 count=1000 | wc -c

On a bog-standard Linux (Debian jessie, Linux kernel 3.16, dd from GNU coreutils 8.23), I get a highly variable number of bytes, ranging from about 3000 to almost 4000. Change the input block size to a divisor of 6, and the output is consistently 4000 bytes as one would naively expect — the input to dd arrives in bursts of 6 bytes, and as long as a block doesn't span multiple bursts, dd gets to read a complete block.

This suggests a solution: use an input block size of 1. No matter how the input is produced, there's no way for dd to read a partial block if the input block size is 1. (This is not completely obvious: dd could read a block of size 0 if it's interrupted by a signal — but if it's interrupted by a signal, the read system call returns -1. A read returning 0 is only possible if the file is opened in non-blocking mode, and in that case a read had better not be considered to have been performed at all. In blocking mode, read only returns 0 at the end of the file.)

dd ibs=1 count="$number_of_bytes"

The problem with this approach is that it can be slow (but not shockingly slow: only about 4 times slower than head -c in my quick benchmark).

POSIX defines other tools that read binary data and convert it to a text format: uuencode (outputs in historical uuencode format or in Base64), od (outputs an octal or hexadecimal dump). Neither is well-suited to the task at hand. uuencode can be undone by uudecode, but counting bytes in the output is awkward because the number of bytes per line of output is not standardized. It's possible to get well-defined output from od, but unfortunately there's no POSIX tool to go the other way round (it can be done but only through slow loops in sh or awk, which defeats the purpose here).

  • Thank you for a very comprehensive answer. It seems like there is no simple, and safe way which is also portable. Maybe the answer is to write a C program if one wants to work with arbitrary bytes in units smaller than lines. I am intrigued by the possibility of a uuencode/uudecode solution. Can you please explain a little more why such a solution would not be safe or portable? (I'm defining safe to mean guaranteed not to lose data on given that everything else works perfectly.)
    – Low Powah
    Commented Apr 23, 2016 at 0:27
  • @LowPowah uuencode won't lose data, the problem is counting the input bytes. You can easily count the number of lines, but the number of bytes per line is not standardized. You can pipe into awk and do the counting there, but if you do that I think you'll lose any speed advantage. Furthermore the output of uuencode (in either format) can't easily be split according to input bytes, since it processes bytes by blocks. The output of od is easy to work with but difficult to convert back to binary afterwards. Commented Apr 23, 2016 at 0:34
  • On my system ibs=1 with 7.9 MB of data degrades the performance from 62 MB/s down to 2.4 MB/s.
    – ceving
    Commented Jan 17, 2020 at 16:32
  • od -An -vtx1 -N10 would read 10 bytes and be POSIX. Commented Oct 31, 2020 at 7:17
  • @StéphaneChazelas Yes, but it also encodes those bytes. Sure, you can pipe the output to an awk program that will decode them (or can you? I don't remember if awk can portably output null bytes), but that's not really helpful here. Commented Nov 1, 2020 at 11:54

Newer versions of the GNU implementation of dd have a count_bytes iflag. eg:

cat /dev/zero | dd count=1234 iflag=count_bytes | wc -c

will output something like

2+1 records in
2+1 records out
1234 bytes (1.2 kB, 1.2 KiB) copied, 0.000161684 s, 7.6 MB/s

Part of the point of using dd at all is that the user gets to pick the block size it uses. If dd fails for too large block sizes, IMO it's the user's responsibility to try smaller block sizes. I could ask for a TB from dd in one block, but that doesn't mean I'll get it.

If you want an exact number of bytes, this will be horrendously slow, but should work:

dd bs=1 count=1000000

If even a block size of 1 results in partial reads, …

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