3

From the several sources I've completed this table:

| UBUNTU VERSION | UBUNTU CODE NAME | UBUNTU RELEASE DATE | UBUNTU LTS | DEBIAN CODE NAME | DEBIAN VERSION |
|----------------|------------------|---------------------|------------|------------------|----------------|
| 16.04          | Xenial Xerus     | APRIL               | YES        | stretch / sid    | 9              |
| 15.10          | Wily Werewolf    | OCTOBER             |            | jessie / sid     | 8              |
| 15.04          | Vivid Vervet     | APRIL               |            | jessie / sid     | 8              |
| 14.10          | Utopic Unicorn   | OCTOBER             |            | jessie / sid     | 8              |
| 14.04          | Trusty Tahr      | APRIL               | YES        | jessie / sid     | 8              |
| 13.10          | Saucy Salamander | OCTOBER             |            | wheezy / sid     | 7              |
| 13.04          | Raring Ringtail  | APRIL               |            | wheezy / sid     | 7              |
| 12.10          | Quantal Quetzal  | OCTOBER             |            | wheezy / sid     | 7              |
| 12.04          | Precise Pangolin | APRIL               | YES        | wheezy / sid     | 7              |
| 11.10          | Oneiric Ocelot   | OCTOBER             |            | wheezy / sid     | 7              |
| 11.04          | Natty Narwhal    | APRIL               |            | squeeze / sid    | 6              |
| 10.10          | Maverick Meerkat | OCTOBER             |            | squeeze / sid    | 6              |
| 10.04          | Lucid Lynx       | APRIL               | YES        | squeeze / sid    | 6              |

Following page said:

Debian is under continual development. The latest release is Debian 8.4. It is also (currently) known as stable or by its codename "Jessie".

Following page said:

Debian Unstable (also known as sid) is one of the 3 distributions that Debian provides (along with Stable and Testing).

According to mentioned posts and the above table one question comes to my mind: Is next LTS versions of Ubuntu based on actual testing version of Debian? If yes, then there is one exception that misleads me; Ubuntu 12.04 was based on Debian 7. As you can see Ubuntu 11.10 was also based on Debian 7 so Debian 7 was not testing release in that time but rather it was stable, or am I wrong? I've also seen that is not recommended to install Debian packages to Ubuntu and vice versa. Why is this problem and why it is not recommended to install packages for next Ubuntu LTS (Xenial Xerus) from current Debian testing (stretch)?

3

Up until Ubuntu 12.04, Ubuntu LTS releases were based on Debian testing; non-LTS releases have always been based on Debian unstable, and LTS releases too since the introduction of proposed migrations.

Ubuntu releases go through a number of phases during their development; up until the Debian import freeze, packages updated in Debian unstable (or added to Debian unstable) are automatically synced over to Ubuntu, with a few exceptions. It's actually common to upload a package to Debian unstable and see it synced to Ubuntu's development release before it migrates to Debian testing! Since Debian unstable is ever-changing, it doesn't really mean much to say that Ubuntu is based on a given version of Debian unstable, because there is no such thing. A given release of Ubuntu is based on Debian unstable as it was at the time of the Debian import freeze.

All supported releases of Debian and Ubuntu get upgrades after their release, as you would expect for security support. These will naturally tend to diverge since the aim is to keep the changes to a minimum in each release "branch" (Debian 7 and LTS, Debian 8, the various supported releases of Ubuntu).

1

According to mentioned posts and the above table one question comes to my mind: Is next LTS versions of Ubuntu based on actual testing version of Debian?

Not really

Ubuntu have their own release cycle which puts out a release every 6 months, during the early part of the release cycles they pull in updated source packages from Debian. Later in the Ubuntu release cycle after the "Debian import freeze" the automatic imports from Debian stop though specific source packages can still be imported if conditions dictate it.

The source packages are normally pulled from Debian unstable (sid), for older LTS releases (12.04 and below) they were pulled from Debian testing instead. Ubuntu only import source packages from Debian. Binaries are recompiled and may be built against different library versions from those used for the same version in Debian. The compiler version and settings used to build them may also be different.

On top of that for many packages Ubuntu do their own updates. Ubuntu is very often ahead of Debian on core packages like gcc and glibc. There can also be packages where imports from Debian are blocked, either due to build failures or due to local changes in Ubuntu that need to be manually merged.

Any correspondence between Ubuntu releases and Debian releases will only be approximate. Per your comments your table seems to be based on the contents of /etc/debian_version . This file comes from the base-files package. Debian typically updates this from "<testing codename>/sid" to it's final release value just before a release. It is then changed in unstable to "<new testing codename>/sid" soon after the release. Ubuntu also have local changes in base-files, so updates to that package from Debian have to be pulled in manually.

Ubuntu 12.04 was based on Debian 7. As you can see Ubuntu 11.10 was also based on Debian 7 so Debian 7 was not testing release in that time but rather it was stable, or am I wrong?

Debian 7.0 wheezy went stable in may 2013.

I'm not sure why the /etc/debian-version in 13.10 still says "wheezy/sid". I would guess that Ubuntu simply didn't get arround to pulling in Debian's updates to the base-files package.

I've also seen that is not recommended to install Debian packages to Ubuntu and vice versa. Why is this problem and why it is not recommended to install packages for next Ubuntu LTS (Xenial Xerus) from current Debian testing (stretch)?

The thing with mixing Ubuntu and Debian is that most of the time it works, but when it doesn't work you have a mixture of packages that noone has tested. That means neither Debian or Ubuntu is likely to want to support you with problems that come out of said mixing.

I would say installing stuff from Debian testing on the development release of Ubuntu is probablly safer than the other way round. Ubuntu is often ahead of Debian on core libraries and accidently pulling in Ubuntu's version of said libraries may cause breakage in things unrelated to the program you were trying to update.

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