I am trying to setup a fully bootable Arch backup by following https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/full_system_backup_with_rsync

I am having a little trouble understanding the example "Update the fstab".

Assume we are using UUIDs and not /dev/sdaXX style fstab files. Let X-num be the UUID of the original FS partitions (num as a placeholder for partition number) and Y-num be the backup's UUIDs. Would we replace:

UUID=X-1       /boot         ext2      defaults                 0   2
UUID=X-2       none          swap      defaults                 0   0
UUID=X-3       /             ext4      defaults                 0   1
UUID=X-4       /home         ext4      defaults                 0   2


UUID=Y-1       /boot         ext2      defaults                 0   2
UUID=Y-2       none          swap      defaults                 0   0
UUID=Y-3       /             ext4      defaults                 0   1
UUID=Y-4       /home         ext4      defaults                 0   2

? I don't understand in the article how 4 rows are replaced with a single row.


Yes, you would replace the UUIDs as you think. The backup filesystems all have unique UUIDs, just as the active ones do, so the entries you have in the bootable backup will all be unique. The article you reference presents a simplified example, with expanding it to multiple fstab entries "left as an exercise for the reader".

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