Not directly, no, as a result of how the package lists and mirrors work.
In order for the package manager to be able to do this, it would need to know not just the dependencies of every package in the system, but the dependencies of every package at every point in time in the past. This would start to get bloated pretty quickly.
Secondly, and more importantly, we have to think about the mirrors. Mirrors are, by and large, run by volunteers, and by their nature, take up a fair bit of disk space. As a result, mirrors generally sync up with the canonical sources via an rsync operation that deletes any files that aren't present on the source - so old versions of packages are deleted. This is why in a quickly-moving distro (like Arch), sometimes performing an "install" command without first doing an "update" command will result in a 404 - the latest version your local package manager knows about has been replaced. For something like what you suggest to happen, mirrors would have to drastically expand their disk usage to keep around old versions of packages.
Most distros also test on the most updated (for that release) packages, so by using an unpatched system you're getting into unsupported territory.
From a security perspective, too, you really want to always be as up to date with your distro as possible.
Overall, you should be staying updated. If there's something that's preventing you from doing this, you should reconsider that situation and see if you can solve it.