I am installing Debian and have been prompted to enter proxy information in standard form of "http://[[user][:pass]@]host[:port]/". I don't need any username and password to connect through my proxy. What will I enter? Should I include quotes? Should I include all the" [" and "]" brackets?
You don't need to enter square brackets and you don't need to provide the parts in brackets either. It is a standard way in manuals to indicate optional parts of the string, in line with CLI syntax.
Unless you were setting some variable in configuration file, you don't need to enter quotes around URL either.
If your proxy does not need username or password
http://host:port would be sufficient.