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I'd like to find all files a binary depends on (including libraries, configuration files, basically all files referenced in the binary).

I know, that you can find shared libraries with objdump, ldd, readelf, but what about dynamically loaded libraries (dlopen) and other files (/etc/some/config)?

So far, I have a half baked solution which searches the binary for strings (filenames) ($ strings /path/to/binary | grep lib), but I think the proper solution would be to search for system calls the binary makes (read, write, dlopen, etc).

Unfortunately I don't have any experience with disassemblers or an idea about other methods.

Also I cannot use solutions which depend on executing the binary (strace, and fiddling around, etc), because I need to do this for a large number of binaries in bulk.

A solution which finds about 90% of all files referenced by a binary would be sufficient.

The binaries to examine are standard (Arch) Linux (multilib) binaries. I assume most of them were compiled by gcc (-O2).

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You could try:

strace -fe open cmd 2>&1 >/dev/null | grep -v '= -1' | cut -d\" -f2

To see what it opens at run time.

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