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The situation is as follows:

  1. I ran dist-upgrade
  2. I start my kali
  3. I choose the proper OS-entry in the grub-selection-list
  4. I enter my LUKS-encryption key
  5. The system boots
  6. The system-boot-process stops with a message like: Failed to start login service
  7. Doing all the steps starting from point 2 BUT choosing "emergency/recovery mode"
  8. I can login then...
  9. Checking all the logs, but the mentioned error seems to be missing in the logs
  10. How can I find out the reason for this error in order to solve it?
1

I had the same problem, but I knew for a fact that this was due to the aborted upgrade and/or dist-upgrade processes.

Here is what I did to fix it:

  1. Enter recovery mode
  2. Start networking:

    ifconfig eth0 up && dhclient eth0
    
  3. Complete the install:

    dpkg --configure -a
    

    This returned some broken packages, including network-manager and network-manager-gnome.

  4. As apt tells you, run:

    apt-get --fix-broken install
    
  5. Start the upgrade and dist-upgrade process again:

    apt-get upgrade -y && apt-get dist-upgrade -y
    
  6. Reboot; it now works normally.

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