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I really don't understand the translation of Active Directory UIDs Mapping to Unix UIDs. When a person logs in with their AD credentials how does winbind understand that it needs to map that AD UID to a specific Unix UID, which is tied to a home directory and their personal files.

All I see in config files is that winbind specifies a range of UIDs that can be used, and that's about it.

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Winbind/Samba stores the Windows SID ids in a tdb (simple LDAP database) and creates a key pair that matches the translated sid-2-uid. If a user on the Linux side doesn't already exist, it makes up a unique UID and stores it in the tdb. If a user exists and 'file' (or ldap) comes before Winbind in nsswitch.conf then it will use that matched users local UID instead.

The tdb files can be found in /var/lib/samba/

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