Terminal colors aren't set in the shell (text colors can be, though, for things like 'ls'). They're specific to the terminal application.
In the first picture, it looks like xterm (although I've been informed it is not). I'm guessing the second picture is GNOME Terminal.
If you want to use xterm, it may already be on your system; if not, it's just an
apt-get install xterm away. xterm is a bit clunky to configure if you're new to Linux, though - it uses X resources, which aren't well supported these days (KDE always mucks mine up - I think GNOME is OK, though). You'll edit either the .Xdefaults or .xresources file in your home directory and add lines like:
reverseVideo line will give you a black background with white text. I have about twenty lines for XTerm in my .Xdefaults.
You should be able to set color schemes for GNOME terminal via the menus up top - according to the docs, it'll be Edit -> Profile Preferences -> Colors. Uncheck "Use colors from system theme" and then select a color scheme (or customize one) that you like.
GNOME Terminal is slower, but it has a lot more modern features than xterm. I use xterm because it's fast and I've used it for twenty years, so I'm used to it.