I am on a multi user Debian Stretch system which has en_US.UTF-8 as default locale, but I want de_DE.UTF-8 for my user. I was able to set it for terminals, by adding export LANG=de_DE.UTF-8 to ~/.bashrc.

The problem is that my X environment (with XFCE as window manager and lightdm as login manager) still uses the default locale, which isn't a surprise as .bashrc is just for bash. So I tried setting the variable in various other files:


This file doesn't seem to get executed at all.


Setting the variable here didn't work either (no observed change in behaviour). Also, if I switch the window manager, I need to set it for the new one again, which isn't very appealing.


Setting the variable here presumably works, but I would also need to start the window manager here, so I'm hoping to find a better place.


Seems to be ignored on Debian


Setting environment variables here actually seems to work, but it looks like LANG is set to en_US.UTF-8 later in the startup process.


Setting a language here doesn't seem to work.

It seems like all these aren't the right place to set the LANG variable. Where should I set it, to get the desired result?

  • ~/.pam_environment is read by default on Debian. Did you write LANG=de_DE.UTF-8 or export LANG=de_DE.UTF-8? export is wrong there, this isn't a shell script, just a list of VARIABLE=value lines. Commented Feb 6, 2016 at 21:41
  • I wrote LANG=de_DE.UTF-8. I also tried TEST=something to be sure that LANG isn't overwritten somewhere else. However, I TEST wasn't set on either physical or X terminals.
    – Kritzefitz
    Commented Feb 7, 2016 at 16:36

2 Answers 2


I had the same problem that the language is not correctly set by lightdm (see this bug). Adding the LANG exports to both .bashrc and .xsessionrc did the trick for me. I export to LANG, LANGUAGE and LC_ALL to be sure.

  • I tried exporting LANG, LANGUAGE and LC_ALL in .bashrc, .xsessionrc and .config/locale.conf (on archlinux) and it still does not apply.
    – bparker
    Commented Aug 15, 2019 at 21:18
  • @bparker: In what context? Using Thunderbird? Commented Jun 5, 2020 at 3:10
  • @Peter Mortensen XFCE itself. I don't remember how I fixed it but I only have a .dmrc file now so that must have been it (even though others said it doesn't work?) But I can't find any other files on my system (user or root) that have my locale in it and it's working
    – bparker
    Commented Jun 6, 2020 at 12:45

Setting ~/.dmrc works on Arch/Manjaro

$ cat ~/.dmrc 

This is mentioned in the Arch Wiki:

LightDM will automatically use accountsservice to set a user's locale if it is installed. Otherwise, LightDM stores the user session configuration in ~/.dmrc. It is possible that an unwanted locale setting is retrieved from there as well.

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