I see there is an executable called "[" in /usr/bin. What is its purpose?

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3 Answers 3


In most cases, [ is a shell builtin and is equivalent to test. However, like test, it also exists as a standalone executable: that's the /bin/[ you saw. You can test this with type -a [ (on an Arch Linux system, running bash):

$ type -a [
[ is a shell builtin
[ is /bin/[

So, on my system, I have two [: my shell's builtin and the executable in /bin. The executable is documented in man test:

TEST(1)                          User Commands                         TEST(1)

       test - check file types and compare values

       test EXPRESSION

       [ EXPRESSION ]
       [ ]
       [ OPTION

       Exit with the status determined by EXPRESSION.

[ ... ]

As you can see in the excerpt of the man page quoted above, test and [ are equivalent. The /bin/[ and /bin/test commands are specified by POSIX which is why you'll find them despite the fact that many shells also provide them as builtins. Their presence ensures that constructs like:

[ "$var" -gt 10 ]  && echo yes

will work even if the shell running them doesn't have a [ builtin. For example, in tcsh:

> which [
> set var = 11
> [ "$var" -gt 10 ]  && echo yes
  • 5
    @AlexandruIrimiea what do you mean? A shell that doesn't have the [ builtin is just a shell whose authors decided not to add one. tcsh doesn't have a [ builtin for example.
    – terdon
    Jan 22, 2016 at 15:56
  • 7
    @AlexandruIrimiea they're not "custom" shells. It's just that bash is only one of many programs (shells) that are designed to do similar jobs. Bash is one of the most popular but many systems ship with different default shells. Some of the better known ones are sh, bash, zsh, dash, ksh, tcsh, csh and fish. You can see the ones available on your system with cat /etc/shells and a partial list here.
    – terdon
    Jan 22, 2016 at 16:06
  • 1
    @JörgWMittag really? I knew that Ubuntu's sh is dash but I thought the rescue system uses /bin/sh not busybox. Are you sure?
    – terdon
    Jan 22, 2016 at 17:26
  • 2
    However, there is indeed a busybox in initramfs, as evidenced from this question Jan 22, 2016 at 17:48
  • 1
    @AlexandruIrimiea, regarding what commands it is necessary to have built in and what commands may or may not be built in, see this post.
    – Wildcard
    Jan 22, 2016 at 22:51

That is used for condition testing in shell scripts. Another name of this program is test:

if [ 1 -lt 2 ]; then ...

That looks like shell grammar but isn't. Usually [ is a shell builtin but probably as fallback it exists as an external command.

See the block "CONDITIONAL EXPRESSIONS" in man bash.


[ is same command as test. On some *nix systems, one is just a link to the other. For example, if you run:

strings /usr/bin/test 
strings /usr/bin/[

you will see the same output.

Most sh-shells/posix-shells include builtin [ and test commands. The same is true for echo. There is both a /bin/echo command and a builtin in most of shells. That it's the reason why sometimes you feel that, for example, echo doesn't work the same way on different systems.

test or [ return only an exit code of 0 or 1. If the test was successful, the exit code is 0.

# you can use [ command but last argument must be ] 
# = inside joke for programmers 
# or use test command. Args are same, but last arg can't be ] :)
# so you can't write 
#    [-f file.txt] because [-f is not command and last argument is not ]
# after [ have to be delimiter as after every commands
[ -f file.txt ] && echo "file exists" || echo "file does not exist"
test -f file.txt && echo "file exists" || echo "file does not exist"
[ 1 -gt 2 ] && echo yes || echo no
test 1 -gt 2  && echo yes || echo no
# use external command, not builtin
/usr/bin/[ 1 -gt 2 ] && echo yes || echo no

You can also use [ with if:

if [ -f file.txt ] ; then
  echo "file exists" 
  echo "file does not exist"
# is the same as
if test -f file.txt  ; then
  echo "file exists" 
  echo "file does not exist"

But you can use if with every command, if is for testing exit code. For example:

cp x y 2>/dev/null && echo cp x y OK ||  echo cp x y not OK

Or, using if:

if cp x y 2>/dev/null ; then
   echo cp x y OK
   echo cp x y not OK

You can get the same result using only the test command to test the exit code which is saved to the variable stat:

cp x y 2>/dev/null 
if test "$stat" = 0 ; then
   echo cp x y OK
   echo cp x y not OK

You can also use [[ ]] and (( )) for testing, but those are not the same as [ and test, despite having almost the same syntax:

Finally, to find out what a command is, you can use:

type -a command
  • For comparing files you should rather use cmp /usr/bin/[ /usr/bin/test or maybe hashes sha256sum /usr/bin/[ /usr/bin/test but not strings. On my system (openSUSE Tumbleweed) BTW they are not the same (whyever). Jan 23, 2016 at 19:37
  • I didn't mean byte comparing. In some *nix they are same also in byte level = linked. Posix test
    – kshji
    Jan 26, 2016 at 3:57

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