Can the locations and sizes of logical volumes be provided as command line arguments when mounting LVM partitions? I mean in the way MTD partitions are not defined using a partition table. Does LVM have that option?
No, LVM does not need a partition table. In many ways, it's beneficial to work without one. This is because you can nearly always resize the volume or disk and get the kernel to recognize the new size, but you can't always get the kernel to recognize a new partition-size. That, and changing the partition size, while do-able, can be tricky.
If you have blank physical block device
/dev/hdx, and you want to put it under LVM, use do:
and work from there.