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I have xfce running in display 0 (accessible via Ctrl + Alt + F1). I press Ctrl + Alt + F2 and type startx (attempting to run more than one window manager at the same time) and receive the error "another session manager is already running xinit".

I have also installed Xephyr and ran in a bash console startx -- /usr/bin/Xephyr :1, but receive the same error as above except this time in an existing desktop environment.

How do I run more than one window environment at once? Preferably, I would do this within two different GeTTY's (i.e., Ctrl + Alt + F1 takes me to my first environment, while Ctrl + Alt + F2 takes me to my second, etc).

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startx -- :1
startx -- :2
startx -- :3
startx -- :4
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You have to start X on each virtual terminal/console specifying different display numbers. In the xinit manual, that is the -display option:

startx is just a special case:

The startx script is a front end to xinit(1) that provides a somewhat nicer user interface for running a single session of the X Window System. It is often run with no arguments.

Here are a few examples where someone uses the -display option to run X on multiple virtual terminals:

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