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Is it possible to compile a kernel module without a makefile and if so, how?

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    Certainly yes, because make is simply running commands (e.g. compilation commands) described by the Makefile/ – Basile Starynkevitch Sep 23 '15 at 10:11
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No, that is not possible because the kernel Makefile that you have to use to compile a module has to call another Makefile defining obj-m.

The usual Makefile for an out of tree module loks like that:

ifneq ($(KERNELRELEASE),)
obj-m := mymodule.o
else
KDIR := /lib/modules/`uname -r`/build

all:
        $(MAKE) -C $(KDIR) M=$$PWD
endif

The first time it is called, KERNELRELEASE is not defined, it will then call the kernel Makefile with the M=$$PWD parameter. Finally, the kernel Makefile will use M, finding and calling the module Makefile again, this time with KERNELRELEASE defined and obj-m will get filled. The module will then be compiled.

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