Today I'm learning something about fifo with this article: Introduction to Named Pipes, which mentions cat <(ls -l).

I did some experiments by using sort < (ls -l), which pops out an error:

-bash: syntax error near unexpected token `('`

Then I found I misadded an extra space in the command.

But, why this extra command will lead to this failure? Why must the redirect symbol be close to the (?

  • It should be noted that *nix shells splits things up based on whitespace which creates the tokens that Alec mentioned. – chicks Sep 15 '15 at 23:39

Because that's not an <, it's a <() which is completely different. This is called process substitution, it is a feature of certain shells that allows you to use the output of one process as input for another.

The > and < operators redirect output to and input from files. The <() operator deals with commands (processes), not files. When you run

sort < (ls)

You are attempting to run the command ls in a subshell (that's what the parentheses mean), then to pass that subshell as an input file to sort. This, however, is not accepted syntax and you get the error you saw.

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    Your answer is good, but then sort is attempting to read the subshell as its input file → this is obviously wrong, as Bash will not even parse the syntax. Neither ls nor sort is actually run. – sleblanc Sep 11 '15 at 18:04
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    @sebleblanc fair point, rephrased the answer, thanks. – terdon Sep 11 '15 at 18:09
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    There's no sub-shell in this case. < (ls) is not a valid token here. – cuonglm Sep 12 '15 at 8:39
  • @cuonglm no, because bash treats it as a syntax error. My point is that (ls) would run ls in a subshell. – terdon Sep 12 '15 at 14:59

Because that's how it's meant to be.

<(...) in bash is the syntax for process substitution. It's copied from the same operator in ksh.

<, (, ), |, &, ; are special lexical tokens in bash that are used to form special operators in different combinations. <, <(, <<, <&... each have their role. < is for redirection. <file, < file would redirect input from a file. <'(file)' would redirect input from a file called (file), but <(file) is a different operator that is not a redirection operator.

< (file) would be < followed by (file). In that context, in bash, (file) is not valid. (...) can be valid as a single token in some contexts like:

(sub shell)
func () {
var=(foo bar)

But not in

sort < (cmd)

In the fish shell, it's different. In fish, (...) is for command substitution (the equivalent of $(...) in bash). And < is for input redirection like in Bourne-like shells.

So in fish:

sort <(echo file)

would be the same as:

sort < (echo file)

That is:

sort < file

But that's something completely different from bash's process substitution.

In the yash shell, another POSIX shell, <(...) is not for process substitution but for process redirection

In there,

sort <(ls -l)

Short for:

sort 0<(ls -l)

is a redirection operator. It's more or less equivalent to:

ls -l | sort

While in bash, the <(ls -l) is expanded to the path of a pipe, so it's more like:

ls -l | sort /dev/fd/0

In zsh, (...) is overloaded as a globbing operator ((*.txt|*.png) would expand to txt and png files) and as glob qualifier (*(/) for instance expands to directory files).

In zsh, in:

sort < (ls -l)

That (ls -l) would be treated as a glob qualifier. The l glob qualifier is to match on number of links and expects a number after l (as in ls -ld ./*(l2) would list the files with 2 links), so that's why you get a zsh: number expected error there.

sort < (w) would have given a zsh: no matches found: (w) error instead as (w) matches the files with empty name that are writeable.

sort < (w|cat) would have sorted the content of the w and/or cat files in the current directory...

  • why sort < $(ls -l) gives this error: bash: $(ls -l): ambiguous redirect – Edward Torvalds Sep 21 '15 at 16:08
  • @edwardtorvalds, because $(ls -l) expands to more than one word. Use quotes to prevent split+glob (sort < "$(echo file)"). Note that the behaviour or bash differs from that of POSIX sh in that bash does that split+glob there as well when non-interactive (not when called as sh though). – Stéphane Chazelas Sep 21 '15 at 16:13
  • by looking at ls -l | sort /dev/fd/0 I can say that output of ls -l is stored in /dev/fd/0 and sort command reads it to give the desired output. I am using tail -f --retry /dev/fd/0 to monitor that file but I am not getting any output. why? how can I read that file? – Edward Torvalds Sep 21 '15 at 16:34
  • In fish, you can use (foo | psub) to achieve input process substitution; there is no substitute (ha) for output process substitution yet. – Zanchey Sep 22 '15 at 23:47

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