In the latest few weeks, my machine rebooted a few times with this kernel panic error. It's a fedora 21, Linux 4 machine on an AMD E-350 APU.
I didn't observe any pattern. When I reboot, the BIOS says the CPU is at some 50 °C. What to do?
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Self-answer: I was right in checking the temperature from the BIOS, but wrong in giving it little importance. The error in question was indeed caused by the CPU overheating, it seems.
In fact, when I reduced the target temperature for the case fan to reach (by 5 °C), the fan of course started working harder and the kernel panic didn't occur again in weeks.