So I'm not sure if you're looking to do this programmatically or not. But the first step you'd need to accomplish this is a database that catalogues all of this sort of information for each distribution and their respective releases.
Luckily… that is exactly what distrowatch.com is.
You can gather this information using their advanced search page, which has a cool feature that allows you to search for distribution releases that include a specific version of a package. In this case, you're interested in the
Searching for a specific version of that package (which corresponds to the kernel version) will give you a nice list of distributions followed by the releases of that distribution that ship with that package version.
I don't know of any DistroWatch API, so if you need to do this programmatically, you'll probably have to do some html parsing. But the format for the query to generate the results page for a given kernel version would be as follows:
Play around with that, and you might be able to get a nice little tool to do exactly what you're trying to do. If anyone knows of a better way to search DistroWatch's Database, please chime in. It'd be really nice, since they have such a treasure-trove of information.