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I never had a problem running Arch Linux alongside Windows in a dual boot on UEFI.

However, the Windows 10 update seems to have added a new partion so that the gummiboot configuration is not correct anymore and it drops me to an emergency shell.

It seems to expect / at /dev/sda5 and /home at /dev/sda6, when in fact /dev/sda6 is / and /dev/sda7 is /home. How can I fix this from the emergency shell?

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First of all, using /dev identifiers for these purposes is generally a BadIdea™ since the disk letter can change (if you have more than one disk). See the Arch wiki entry on persistent block device naming.

Second, Gummiboot is a dead project and while it is still an option to use it, you should consider moving to systemd-bootd (which is actually just gummiboot but handled through systemd internally).

Finally, the solution to your actual issue: get a live cd and boot from it. Mount your partitions as needed and chroot into them. Then, modify the config in your /boot (or wherever you put your ESP if not there) and change the partition labels to the correct ones. Note that, if you were using UUIDs, this likely would not be an issue since the partition ids would not have changed.

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    @jasonwryan, you're my hero. – HalosGhost Aug 1 '15 at 0:15
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    I do what I can... :) – jasonwryan Aug 1 '15 at 0:19
  • Thank you very much for the advice! However I did not find the place where to change the sda5 for the identifier, neither in the live system, nor in the emergency prompt. Even when I create the boot entry directly in the UEFI (circumventing gummiboot completely) it still tries to load /dev/sda5 instead of /dev/sda6. – Konrad Höffner Aug 1 '15 at 18:41
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    On the live system after you chroot in, the configuration is in wherever your ESP is. – HalosGhost Aug 1 '15 at 18:45
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    The ESP should not have that many files. You need to edit whichever one you used to create Arch's configuration. It's typically $ESP/loader/entries/arch.conf. – HalosGhost Aug 1 '15 at 19:07

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