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Is there a way to tell the SSH daemon, "when a remote device attempts to connect via SSH, verify against authorized_keys, but if there is no key offered, accept a one-time password so the user can use ssh-copy-id to provide it for subsequent attempts"?

context: I would like to be able to set up a linux server so that a user can SSH into the box, but I want to use RSA keypairs for authentication. I also have several devices that I want to be able to connect from, so that means providing multiple key-pairs (not a problem).

Essentially, I want to add entries to authorized_keys using OTP and ssh-copy-id, from a device that, currently would be denied access (because it hasn't presented a public key yet). I currently have to SSH in from a machine that can connect, edit the sshd_config file to allow passwords, then copy over the id with a static password, turn password authentication off and reboot the daemon. I would prefer a way to get a OTP from the system and then just use that and keep working...

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  • You might want to write a PAM module for SSH that gets run if key auth fails. PAM is generally how you configure alternative auth mechanisms; that having been said, I don't know if there's already a better way out there, so I'm not giving that as an answer. Commented Jul 29, 2015 at 18:11

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Public key authentication is turned on by default and has higher priority then password authentication (handled by PAM or directly).

You can set up in sshd_config option UsePAM yes (by default on Red Hat), which will defer authentication to PAM -- this is configured in /etc/pam.d/sshd (can differ a bit on some systems).

For OTP you can use google_authenticator, or some other open implementation of one-time passwords. There are many how-to's around here. You can try to search for two-factor authentication, but basically it is adding one line like this

 auth            required        pam_google_authenticator.so

in the /etc/pam.d/sshd and do some configuration: Arch has nice instruction for this: https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Google_Authenticator

Using only one-time passwords, without the second factor can be potential risk if the one-time password or token gets lost -- I recommend you not to go this way and implement rather the two factor authentication than only one-time password.

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