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On Linux, I would like to to set up a user account in such a way that the user would have to enter 2 passwords to log in. Is this possible, and what would be the implications of this?

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    What is the advantage of having to enter two passwords to login (unless you really hate your users) – Ed Heal Jul 17 '15 at 8:07
  • you may wish to alter password complexity i.e. 36 char long, with 3 uppercase, 4 special char and all. to be change every fortnight, no reusing last 100 password. – Archemar Jul 17 '15 at 8:30
  • Possible duplicate of How to configure pam to use with two different passwords? – roaima Jul 17 '15 at 9:28
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Reading between the lines, what you want to configure is two-factor authentication. This will require an additional "piece of information" in addition to the password for the user to log in.

There are a multitude of ways of implementing it, but a few popular options are:

In both cases, PAM modules are available so all system logins (console, ssh, etc) can be configured to use two-factor authentication.

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A quick search turned up Two Factor SSH Setup which is a simple walkthrough of the steps required for setup.

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