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I removed old linux-image and linux-header files to free up space in /boot. I did this first by purging them in the terminal. Then, when I noticed some issues with how the the operating system performed, I tried to weed through the issues with Synaptic. After some removal and reinstallation of linux-images and headers, I seem to have ruined my /boot.

Currently, I have linux-images 3.13.0-{37,57}-generic and 3.16.0.40-generic installed on the boot drive. 3.16.0.40-generic was the last known working version, but it since has been reinstalled and does not work. I was hoping to be able to remove old my linux-images and start from scratch with a Live USB. However apt-get purge and install commands seem to fail regularly when installing linux-images and headers. I keep having to remove the lock from the processes to run apt-get or dkpg commands.

I have root access to the boot disk and data from the Live USB. I am new to Linux and Ubuntu. I am not sure what logs or commands I should be checking for errors.

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You will need to chroot (change root) to the installed system once you're booted from the live cd/usb.

Excellent instructions on creating the chroot environment are here:

http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=1581099

I've used these instructions quite a few times - please read and understand each step before starting - pay particular attention to the section regarding a separate boot partition.

Once you're chrooted, there's no need to do the full purge and reinstall of grub in the instructions unless you want to for completeness, but do issue the following:

apt-get install --reinstall linux-image-generic linux-image
update-initramfs -u -k 3.13.0-55-generic #this is the version mine is using, yours might differ - you can check by using "uname -r" in terminal
update-grub
shutdown -r 0

That should reinstall the latest kernel. Once you're booted back into your installed system rather than the live cd/usb you can:

sudo apt-get autoremove

to get rid of any additional and un-needed kernels.

Hope that helps.

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