I have installed Debian 8, but I neeed to use just multi-user text mode, runlevel 3, instead of appear my Gnome 3.
But I saw that doesn't exist
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Two things you need to know:
1) Systemd boots towards the target given by "default.target". This is typically a symbolic link to the actual target file.
2) Systemd keeps it's targets in /lib/systemd/system and /etc/systemd/system. A file in /etc/systemd/system takes precedence over those shipped with the OS in /lib/systemd/system -- the intent is that /etc/systemd is used by systems administrators and /lib/systemd is used by distributions.
Debian as-shipped boots towards the graphical target. You can see this yourself:
$ ls -l /etc/systemd/system/default.target ... No such file or directory $ ls -l /lib/systemd/system/default.target ... /lib/systemd/system/default.target -> graphical.target
So to boot towards the multiuser target all you need do is to put in own target:
$ cd /etc/systemd/system/ $ sudo ln -s /lib/systemd/system/multi-user.target default.target
It is highly recommended not to mess with the manual symlink-ing, but rather use appropriate options of the
systemctl command. In this case, to set the default target you should run:
# systemctl set-default multi-user.target
You MUST HAVE ROOT PRIVILEGE to do that in Debian.
su. Then enter root password.
when you have root privilege, just type
init [runlevel] or `telinit [runlevel] is OK.
init is under
/sbin and Debian is so simplified. It have no feature like Ubuntu which will tell you that
init is under
/sbin, you must have root privilege to do that.
By the way,
reboot and so on are all in similar situation as
If you just want to shutdown or reboot, type
systemctl poweroff or
systemctl reboot. It will shutdown or reboot system without require root privilege.
root@kali:~# systemctl set-default runlevel3.target Created symlink /etc/systemd/system/default.target → /lib/systemd/system/multi-user.target.
The new distros don't use /etc/iniitab. They instead they use /etc/init/rc-sysinit.conf. So there are a few ways of doing this:
edit the kernel comand line in bootloader configuratoin file (if its grub, then grub.cfg)
edit /etc/init/rc-sysint.conf (DEFAULT_RUNLEVEL=2)
Choose to Edit at the bootmenu locate the kernel line, add a space and specify the run level as shown here :
systemdDebian never split text vs graphics mode into run levels. The default run level was always 2, for graphics and text.