What is the name of the font that is used in Linux Console TTY 1-6?
The font in the image you supplied is the VGA font (I believe people refer to it as the VGA 437 font, but it's ambiguous; take a look at the wikipedia page.) This rendering is not something specific to Linux – it's your graphics card's rendition. Every graphics card I've used has used this particular rendering by default. I found a TTF clone of it here.
The Linux TTY has other fonts and sizes too. If you want to customize it, try
sudo dpkg-reconfigure console-setup
In opensuse this (or very similar) font is called Misc Console and can be installed from the misc-console-font package.